According to John McDonnell (1879) The Ulster Civil War of 1641, the Scots Army of Ulster (i.e. Scottish Army of the Solemn League), was financed by the English Parliament, and commanded first by Monro, a force of 2,500 sent to Ireland in April 1642 to occupy garrisons in Antrim, then latterly another larger force of 7,500 was sent under the Earl of Leven (Leslie) in August 1642 to occupy garrisons in other parts of Antrim and Derry. The two contingents comprised the 10,000 that Scotland had undertaken to furnish. Some of the garrisons are identified: Glencairn’s at Carrickfergus; one company of Argyll’s stationed at Ballintoy (presumably McAulay’s); with two other companies stationed at Ballycastle; along with two companies stationed at Ballymoney; while at Dunluce (Lord Antrim’s seat) the bulk of Argyll’s forces (some five companies) was concentrated.
A brief cessation in 1644 created an opportunity for Ormonde and the Catholic Earl of Antrim to form an alliance to reinforce Royalist forces in Scotland, Antrim sent three regiments of Irish mercenaries under the command of Alasdair MacColla MacDonnell together with some 700 Macleans, 500 Clanranald Macdonalds, 500 Glengarry MacDonells, and smaller numbers of other clans, recently released from Spanish service, together with the Athol men brought in by Patrick Graham of Inchbrakie, MacGregors, MacNabs, MacPhersons, Stewarts of Appin, and Farquarsons, throng to the cause of Montrose’s Cavaliers and against the Covenanter Army.
Monro, concerned about Sir Arthur Chichester’s occupation of Belfast, acceptance of the cessation and denouncing of the covenant occupied Belfast without firing a shot in May 1644 disbanding Chichester’s regiment in the process. The cessation caused a split in the Laggan Army, part of which followed the lead of Sir Robert Stewart and complied with the terms of the cessation. Another part of the Laggan army under Sir Thomas’s brother William sided with Monro and did not accept the terms of the cessation.
In April, the Army of Ulster followed Scotland’s lead by agreeing to the Solemn League and Covenant but the Ulster settlers were divided into those who would and those who would not follow the Earl of Ormond and his royalists. With plans in the works for an invasion of England in support of Parliament, the Scots settlers provided many of the soldiers for the new Scottish Army. With the rampant discontentment among the effected parties, allegiances waned and broke, such that it is very difficult to stay abreast of even a single individual’s allegiances much less their family’s politics.Much like in the Wars of Scottish Independence, when a Scot might have two sons: he sent one to fight for the English, the other for the Scots, and which ever side was victorious, that son carried on the name and the lands.
I include the petition of Archibald Stewart of 1663 only for the information it imparts as concerns his nephew, Major Alexander McAulay, who is refers to as his ‘son-in-law’, it has been observed that this courtesy was quite common during that period to refer to a brother’s son-in-law as one’s own son, just as Robert Hamilton of Barnes is often referred to as Aulay McAulay’s brother rather than as his brother-in-law.
“To His Grace James, Duke of Ormonde, Lord Lieutenant General of Ireland, and General Governor of the said Kingdom.The Humble Petition of Archibald Stewart Humbly Sheweth,---
That he makes bold to represent to your Grace, how he hath been used by the Scottish Army and the Usurpers, before and since your Grace left this Kingdom.
In the year 1643, your Grace was pleased to grant him a Commission to raise a Troop of Horse, and a Foot Company, and your Grace assigned him his own lands for quarters for them.
Your petitioner raised them, and went to the Field, and joined with Major General Monro, to serve against the Common Enemy, according to your Grace's order, and was upon the Field with them from June till the last of October.
When your Grace's Petitioner came off the Field, he was denied quarters for one man by Argile's Lt. Colonel, which forced your Petitioner to disband his men, after all the charge he was at in raising of them.
In the year 16.., he was the means (by God’s Providence) to break the said Regiment of Argile's , and procured 500 men of the said Regiment to join with Sir George Monro, to go to England upon Duke Hamilton's engagement, under the command of your Petitioner's son-in-law, Major Alexander MacAuley, for which, after the Duke was broken at Preston, your Grace's Petitioner was prosecuted by Argile's Lt. Colonel before the now Duke of Albermarle, then Commander of Ulster, and was brought to a Council of War, held at Belfast, for life and estate, as the Lord Conway and Major George Rawdon can testify…”From “The Stewarts of Ballintoy” (1865) by the Rev. George Hill, in Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Vol. VII, No. I (January 1901), 16-17; Bodleian Library, MS. Carte 33, fol. 275].
Where is stated that Major Alexander MacAuley was in command of Stewart’s regiment and was sent “to England upon [1st] Duke of Hamilton’s engagement” likely refers to the Engager army Hamilton led into England in support of the King that mustered at Annan in Dumfriesshire on July 4, 1648 before crossing the border on 8 July where it joined forced with Langdale’s Royalists at Carlisle who was defeated at the Battle of Preston while the Duke of Hamilton’s Engager Army was defeated at the Battle of Winwick Pass the next day 19 August. Hamilton subsequently surrendered to Lambert at Uttoxeter, was tried for treason, and found guilty for not revealing his co-conspirators and executed on March 9, 1649 scarcely a month after the execution of the King.
In September 1648, Munroe retreats to Scotland to join forces with the Earl of Lanark and the Engagers before marching on Edinburgh and seize Linlithgow then scattered the Marquis of Argyll’s forces before occupying Stirling on 12 September. Monck secures Belfast, Carrickfergus and Colerain against Scottish supporters of the Engagement in Ulster, but Monroe is taken prisoner at Carrickfergus and sent to England in chains.
Supported by Cromwell, the Marquis of Argyll and Whig leaders in Edinburgh reform and demand the disbandment of Engager forces. Despite the unpopularity of the English occupation, the Engagers gave way and signed the Treaty of Stirling on 27 September 1648. When the Scottish Parliament met In January 1649, the Act of Classes was passed which excluded supporters of Hamilton and the Engagers from public office in Scotland and ensured the supremacy of the covenanting Kirk Party. Local barony courts and heritable jurisdictions, were formally abolished in 1651. It was this same Act which also stripped away all entitlements to hereditary offices in Scotland, depriving the McAulays of Ardincaple from their office as hereditary baillie of the Regality of Lennox. But this setback was a minor inconvenience as Sir Aulay McAulay (fiar of Ardincaple) represented Dumbartonshire as MP at Westminster from 1656-61.
The Glenville family later intermarried with the Stewart of Mount-Stewart, co. Donegal [NLI, Wicklow Collection, No 69 “Stewart of Dundaff”, MS 38,520/1 (2), MS 38,613/3 (2)], in thatJohn Stewart of Dundaff, Ayrshire (son and heir of Anthony Stewart elder of Mount-Stewart, younger brother of William Stewart, late laird of Dundaff), by marriage contract of 15 October 1650, was wed on 17 October 1650 to Jean Stewart, daughter of Archibald Stewart of Ballintoy. Jean’s first cousin, Alice Stewart, was the wife of Major Alexander Macaulay, and daughter of Ninion Stewart and Jane M’Cullough. Major John Stewart (son of William Stewart and nephew of Anthony Stewart) of Mount-Stewart, County Donegal, also served under the Duke of Hamilton at the Battle of Preston.
Although I have not yet found any mention of whether Major Alexander McAulay was imprisoned or fined by the Parliamentarians, many in Scotland were. Considering that the Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland continued another four years until 1653, when the last of Irish Confederates and Royalist troops surrendered, their lands were held forfeit and were largely given to English Protestants who had settled there before the war.That Major Alexander McAulay latterly appears in the Register of Deeds for Regality of Lennox (31 March 1685) as the uncle appointed as the tutor or guardian for the young Archibald McAulay, son and heir of the deceased Aulay McAulay of Ardincaple who died in June 1675, matches well with the description given him in 1677 when he was admitted a burgess of Dumbarton in company with Archibald Earl of Argyll, Lord Neil Campbell, John Campbell of Carrick, and others. Clearly we are dealing with the same person given Major Alexander McAulay appears here with his former commanders in a sort of veteran’s reunion. Thus his identity appears to be that of a younger brother to Sir Aulay McAulay of Ardincaple (1622-1675) and a son of Sir Walter McAulay of Ardincaple (ca1590-1668).