According to Black's Surnames of Scotland the name (Roughead) was found as early as 1295 - a Phillippus dictus Rocchet was witness to a charter; Alexander Roched was chaplain in Brechin, 1435...There was an old family named Rocheid of Craigleith and Inverleith near Edinburgh.
Other spellings Rucheid, Rochede, Ruchead, Rochhead.
My link is to Edinburgh but I have little else. It doesn't seem to be very common even when all spellings are gathered. If you have extractions in the Edinburgh area I would greatly appreciate seeing them.