Inquiry into the origins of the name Sabol
Important note:Surnames did not exist until 1000AD and then only in Southern Europe and only over time in Northern Europe -1400AD.Surnames came about through connection to a famous ruler, or from the town or tribe, or from one’s trade.
According to a family crest website, there are two links to the name Sobol-German or Russian, which is close to the spelling for the name Sabol.The name Sabol comes up on their website as a Spanish name.How to put this together and come up with the best theory for where the Sabols came from and how did they get their name?The German originality would make sense for several reasons:German settlers came into Slovakia during the time when Slovakia, controlled by the Slavs was a very valuable piece of property in Europe.
Going back a bit further:
“Around the 6th century, Slavs appeared on Byzantine borders in great numbers. The Byzantine records note that grass wouldn't regrow in places where the Slavs had marched through, so great were their numbers. After a military movement even the Peloponnese and Asia Minor were reported to have Slavic settlements. This southern movement has traditionally been seen as an invasive expansion. By the end of the 6th century, Slavs had settled the Eastern Alps region.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peopleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples
“During the 6th century and on, the Slavs were very powerful, invading Byzantium at times and instead of withdrawing, staying for good in the Balkan area. The Slavs held back several Asian tribes from over-running Europe as well. In 833, an important political event took place in this region. Prince Mojmr, from the principality of Moravia, and his army, attacked the principality of Nitra, conquering it and creating in a relatively vast territory, a united Slav State. The Empire unified the Slavs of Nitra and Moravia. The principality of Mojmr is known in historiography under the incorrect name of Great Moravia. This designation was assigned 100 years later, after its disappearance, by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, even though no historic source from the 9th century mentions the formation of a State called Great Moravia” The empire of Mojmr became the target of Christianization led by the Frank clergy, which is attested to by the Ecclesiastical Assembly of 852 at Mohuc and the reports by the Ecclesiastical Missions of Salzburg. But the rich deposits of iron, silver and copper also served as strong attractions to the rulers of the Frank Empire. It was for this reason that Louis II the German, with his armies, invaded the principality of Mojmr, stripping Mojmr I of his crown, and entrusting the royalty to his son, Rastislav.
Prince Rastislav I stood out as an efficient and wise lord. To put an end to the aggressiveness of the Eastern Franks, he attempted, starting in 853, to establish an alliance with the Bulgars. He resisted several military attacks by the Franks and, in 855, challenged the huge army of King Louis the Pious at Devin and, in 857, even conquered Duke Carloman and established, in 857, a peace treaty with him.
Ratislav I wisely understood the importance of Christianization of the Slavs and asked the Pope in Rome, in 861, to send a Bishop to his kingdom. His request fell on deaf ears in Rome and, so, in 862, he asked the Byzantine Emperor Michael III to send him a Bishop and religion teachers. The famous letter from Ratislav I to Emperor Michael III began with these words: " ...We, the Slavs, a simple people, have no-one to teach us the truth..." The Emperor agreed to his request and sent Ratislav two apostles, Cyril and Methodius, who were brothers and natives of the city of Salonika (today Thessalonica).”
Slovakia was rich in raw materials and fairly economically developed and therefore (until the beginning of the Modern Era, Slovakia was the biggest producer of silver and the second largest producer of gold in Europe) was, until the Turkish expansion, the richest and most developed area of Hungary.
It was precisely for that reason that the first royal privileges were given to Slovakian cities -- Trnava in 1238, Zvolen, Krupina, Stary Tekov in 1240, Nitra, Kosice in 1248, Banska Stiavnica in 1255, Banska Bystrica in1255, Gelnica in 1270, Bratislava in 1291, etc. The participation of the Slovaks in public affairs was attested to notably in the Privilegum pro Slavis by Zilina, dated 1381, where King Louis I gave the Slovaks half of the seats on the Municipal Councils.
The ethnic German population of Slovakia (148,000) amounted to about five percent of the total according to 1930 census statistics. Most of these German speakers were descendants of people who came to Upper Hungary (Slovakia), as early as the 1100s.
These ethnic Germans emigrated to Hungary and other lands east of the Elbe seeking fertile farmland on which to settle due to scarcity of land in their native areas. The invention of a heavier plow in about 1000 A.D. along the Rhine River allowed farmers to turn over the heavier, wet soils of northern Europe's river valleys. The three-field crop rotation method was adopted about the same time.
Together, these innovations produced a more abundant food supply which led to growth in the population and subsequent settlement of previously untilled areas of Western Europe. Further population growth resulted in the need to find new settlement areas. These were found in the lands beyond the Elbe River-from eastern Germany eastwards. At first, the migrants were people from the Rhineland and Saxony.
By the end of the Middle Ages, these ethnic Germans were a significant minority of most East European countries, the areas we now know today as Slovakia, Poland, the Baltic States, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Romania. For example, Bohemia (the western part of the current Czech Republic) up until 1945 had well over 30% ethnic German population. Moravia had about 22%.
During the early Middle Ages, the territory of Upper Hungary was relatively thinly settled by Slovak and Rusyn agriculturalists along with some Magyar landowners and margraves. Compared to the densely populated Rhineland and northern France, Upper Hungary (Slovakia) was a frontier region. The Germans, known for their skills in the crafts, farming and mining, were invited as settlers by a series of Hungarian rulers.
In 1241, the Mongols invaded Upper Hungary for a short period and all but destroyed many of the early settlements. The Germans were again invited to settle. The main period of this later settlement was under King Bela IV (1235-1270).
German immigration continued until the time of the Black Death, beginning in 1346 and lasting some years…
The Sabol or Sobol name is from Germanic tribes in Silesia, this area has a history of Germanic tribes.
Germans immigrated to work in the valuable mines located in Slovakia, from the early 6th century on.
Between the Celtic and the Slavic period Lower Silesia was recorded in Magna Germania in the 2nd century inhabited by a number of Germanic tribes among them the Vandals, Lugii and the Silingi, who might have given the region Silesia its name, though its not clear and disputed.
With the Germanic tribes leaving westwards a number of new peoples came into Silesia from Sarmatia, Asia Minor, and the Asian steppes during the Great Migrations at the beginning of the 6th century.
My grandmother was a Svarc or Schwartz, obviously a German name, and she mentioned that the Svarc family was Germans who had come to Slovakia.The Sobol, or Sabol very well could be from a German origin.The town Sobolow in Silesia (now Poland) was on the other side of the Carpathian Mountains, and not that far from Slovakia.
The Russian name Sobol is not unusual in Russian, and generally a Jewish name, and easy to find by typing in Sobol.Sobol name for Jews, came from their trade in furs.Russia was a huge exporter of furs into Europe and the buying, appraising was most likely done by the Jews. “Fur trade was controlled from by Jews.”Poland had a very tolerant religious platform, andsee article below at end.
Jews were banned from many countries or cities during the middle ages, and sinceBardejov in Eastern Slovakia was part of the Hungarian Empire which banned Jews from the cities in the 1400’s?, Jews left to friendly Poland or stayed in groups.A Sabol or Sobol then, if our name is from Russian would mean that the very likely Jewish man converted.I think this is unlikely, therefore.We were part of the Hungarian Empire, for one.If we were Russian Sobol or Sabol, then we would very likely have been Jews who worked in the fur trade, maybe from that same region of Silesia.My wife’s mother’s name is Borovik, a Jewish name from a town in Poland as well.Since I live in Russia now, my name is rather familiar and identified as Jewish, regardless if I’m an Orthodox Christian, as many Jews in Russia are Orthodox Christians as well.Therefore, I believe if we were from Poland or the Ukraine, we definitely would say we come from the Russian Sobol family and are Jewish.But much more likely, due to the location of the Sabols South of Poland and Bardejov, is that we have a German name.
This brings up another interesting point.The original Visigoth German tribes also invaded into France and Spain and, while they lost France to the Franks, they conquered Spain and later re-conquered the Spanish territory from the Moors.
The house of names websites lists Sabol as a Spanish name along with many variations-Sabato, Zapata, etc…which are from the same Visgoth names and especially setteled in the Castile area which was key area used to re-conquer Spain.
Because Sabol is used here, I think the argument is very strong of the name belonging to the Visgoth/ Germans.Therefore, my theory is that our family name is Germanic, probably from immigrants invited into the country.I think if we were Sobol from the Russian/Jewish link, that we would have left the country for Poland, which was also a very wealthy area of Europe in the early Middle Ages.