Hi Paul...thanks for that interesting DNA finding. Underwood in her book suggested that Francis Small(Maine) and John Smalley(Cape Cod) were cousins or brotheres..so they couldn't have been brothers,according to your DNA results maybe not even cousins. Edward Small/Smale signed his name as Smale in 1653 while in NH. My line were Smalleys until Taylor(jR.)dropped the "ey" and continued to be Small to the present day. Taylor and other Smalls had to change it officially through the State of Massachusetts and it is recorded.