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Thomas Rogers (b. July 1586, d. January 11, 1620/21)Thomas Rogers (son of Thomas Matthew Rogers and Alice Calle) was born July 1586 in Scotland, and died January 11, 1620/21 in Duxbury, Plymouth, Massachusetts.He married Alice Elizabeth Cosford Elsgen, daughter of George Cosford and Margaret Wills.
Notes for Thomas Rogers:
Thomas  Rogers (of the Mayflower), born Watford about 1571, died Plymouth, Massachusetts in the winter 1620/1 in the "first sickness", married Watford 24 October 1597 Alice Cosford, baptized there 10 May 1573, living in Leiden, Netherlands in 1622, daughter of George and Margaret (Wills?) Cosford of Watford (see below, "Cosford Family").
i. Thomas Rogers was a camlet merchant. He bought a house on the Barbarasteeg in Leiden by 1617, having joined the English Separatists there in or after 1613, and he became a citizen of Leiden on 25 June 1618. He sold his house on April 1620, probably to prepare for removal to America. In the fall of 1620 he and his son Joseph sailed on the Mayflower and he was the eighteenth signer of the Mayflower Compact on 11 November 1620. Alice and the other children remained in Leiden, apparently expecting to join Thomas and Joseph later; they were still there in 1622, living in the home of Anthony Clements. Of the four surviving children, only his sons Joseph and John have so far been documented in New England records.
Children of Thomas and Alice (Cosford) Rogers, baptized at Watford:
i. Thomas , bapt. 24 March 1598/9, bur. Watford 27 May 1598.
ii. (possibly) Richard, bapt. 12 March 1599/1600, no parents named, bur. Watford 4 April 1600.
iii. Joseph, bapt. 23 Jan. 1603/3, d. Eastham, Massachusetts Jan. 1677/8, m. Hannah (----). Issue. Arriving with his father late in 1620, he was granted tow acres in 1623, one in his own right and one in his father's right. On the 1627 cattle division list he appears with (Gov.) William Bradford, with whom he may have lived after having been orphaned. In 1633 he was made a freeman and that same year paid tax with his brother John. He was in Duxbury early and on 2 March 1635/6he was permitted to operate a ferry across the Jones River; he was granted thirty acres of land 5 November 1638; he was appointed constable at Duxbury 3 March 1639/40. With his brother John and others, he had a grant of fifty acres at North River (Marshfield) 6 April 1640. He is last mentioned at Duxbury 31 July 1646 but by the following year appeared at Nausett (Eastham), where he was proposed as lieutenant of the trained band 1 June 1647. He served on the Council of War in June and October 1658; released from his lieutenancy in 1661, he was re-established in 1664. He was selectman for Eastham in 1670. His will, made 2 January 1677/8, was proved 5 March1677/8; the inventory of his estate was taken 15 January1677/8.  iv. John, bapt. 6 April 1606, d. Duxbury before 20 September 1692, m. Plymouth 16 April 1639 Anna Churchman. Issue. At Leiden in 1622 with his mother and two sisters, John Rogers probably came to Plymouth about 1630 with the last of the Pilgrims to leave the Separatist enclave. He was first at Duxbury from Edmund Chandler. With his brother Joseph and others, he had a grant of fifty acres at Marshfield 6 April 1640. He was admitted a freeman before 1 March1641/2. At Duxbury he was surveyor of highways in 1644, deputy to the General Court in 1657, and constable in 1666. As an "ancient freeman" of the colony, he was granted land at Taunton on 3 June 1662. He had another hundred acres on Coteticutt (Titicut) River in 1677 and in 1673 another hundred acres on the northeast side of Taunton. He is called "weaver" in a deed conveying one acre in Duxbury to Wrestling Brewster in 1680. His will, dated 26 August 1691, was proved 20 September 1692. 
v. Elizabeth, bapt. 26 December 1608, living in Leiden in 1622. She may have m. Samuel Eddy at Plymouth or she may be the Elizabeth Rogers who m. Robert Rodway at Watford in July 1635.
vi. Margaret, bapt. 30 May 1613, living in Leiden in 1622. No further record appears for her at Plymouth or elsewhere.
Alice Cosford, who married Thomas Rogers at Watford 24 October 1597, was almost certainly a daughter of George Cosford baptized there 10 May 1573. The name is by this time almost illegible; Watts speculated that it was "Anne" but Mrs. Powell states that it "could equally be Anne or Alice" and, in any event , the will of George Cosford names Alice and Thomas Rogers his daughter and son-in-law but does not mention any daughter Anne. The following entries were extracted from the Watts transcript: 
1570 23 Aug Annis Cosforde
1571 9 Jun Johannes Cosforde
1573 10 May Anne (?) Cosforde (Anne or Alice, M.A. Powell)
1574 4 Feb Wilhelmus Cosforde
1576 3 Jun Clemence, daughter of Georgi Cosforde (month added and name confirmed by M.A. Powell)
1581 10 Jun Giffordus, son of Georgii Cosforde
1610 6 May Elizabetha Cosforde daughter of Johannis Cosforde
1611 -- Nov Georgius Cosforde son of Johannis Cosforde
1613 19 Sep Alicia Cosforde daughter of Johannis Cosforde
1615 2 Jul Isabella Cosforde daughter of Johannis Cosforde
1617 2 Nov Johannes Cosforde son of Johannis Cosforde
1620 16 Apr Margareta Cosford daughter fo Johannis & Maria Cosford
1597 24 Oct Thomas Rogers and Alicia Cosforde
1609 25 Nov Johanes Ashby and Maria Cosforde
1600 2 Mar Henricus Cosforde (?)
1607 7 Apr Henricus Cosforde
1608 13 Nov Georgius Cosforde
1615 18 Nov Margareta Cosforde
1623 3 Dec Robertus Cosforde
The parents of George Cosford are unknown. Although the will of a John Cosford of the nearby parish of Ashby St. Ledgers mentions a son named George,  that will was made in 1533; if the son George is father-in-law of the Pilgrim Thomas Rogers, he is considerably older than one might have anticipated.
George Cosford of Watford (1601)
"In the name of god Amen the nynth daie of Aprill the yeare of our Lord god 1601 in the fortie and third yeare of the raigne of our sovergne Ladie Queene Elizabeth I George Cosford of Watford in the Countie of Northampton husbandman being sick in bodie yet of pfect mynd and memory I thank my god do make this my last will and testament in manner and forme following ffirst I commend my soule to god almightie and my bodie to be furied in the churchard of Watford Item I give and bequeath unto my daughter Elizabeth one cowe and twentie marks of lawful money of England to be paied to her by five marks yearelie until the said whole some of twentie marks be (illeg.) unto the said Elizabeth And if she shall happen to be married before all the said payments be discharges in manner and forme aforesaid then my will and mynde is that al the money beheld and not paied unto the said Elizabeth of the said some of twentie marks shalbe paied unto her in and upon the day of the marriage of the said Elizabeth Item I give and bequeath unto my sonne John five pounds of like lawful money to be paied unto him whin two yeares next after my decease Item I give to my sonne Gifford tenn pounds of like lawful money to be paied unto him wthin foure yeares next after my decease Item I give to my daughter Marie twentie nobles to be paied bo her in and upon the daie of her marriage and if she be not married before to be paied unto her at the age of thirtie yeares Item I vive to my daughter Clemence twenty nobles to be pied at such tyme as she shalbe willing to depart from or discontinue her abode wth her mother and brother Henry or either of them Item I bequeath unto my sonne Willm five marks to be paied wthin five yeares next after my decease Itemmy will and mynde is that the agreement in wrytinge between me and Thomas Rogers my soninlawe dated the eight daie of October 1596 shalbe pformed according to the true intent and meaning thereof by my wife Margaret Cosford and Henry Cosford whom I make myne executrs of this my last will and testament and unto whom (my debts paied and the legacies in and by this my will bequeathed pformed) I give the rest of my goodes and chattels moveable and unmoveable ungiven and unbequeathed and I make mine overseers John Davis vicar of Watford aforesaid to whom I give two shllings for his paines wth me and Robert Butcher and John Wills my brother and in repect thereof I give to them three sixe penie apiece In wytnesse wherof: John Davis John Wills his marke (proved 15 May 1609)"
George Cosford, husbandman of Watford, co. Northampton, born say 1545, buried at Watford 13 November 1608, married MARGARET (----) who was buried there 18 November 1615. As George Cosford called John Wills "brother" in his will, her surname may have been Wills.
Children of George and Margaret (----) Cosford, baptized at Watford: i. Henry, b. c.1568, bur. Watford 7 April 1607, probably eldest son. Although named an executor of his father's will, he predeceased his father.
ii. John, bapt. 9 June 1571, living 16 April 1620; he had children bapt. at Watford but his wife's name is unknown.
iii. Alice, bapt. 10 May 1573, m. Thomas  Rogers the Pilgrim.
iv. William, bapt. 4 February 1574/5, living 9 April 1601, n.f.r
v. Clemence, bapt. 3 June 1576, living 9 April 1601, n.f.r.
vi. Gifford, bapt. 10 June 1581, living 9 April 1601, n.f.r.
vii. Elizabeth, bapt. Not found, living 9 April 1601, n.f.r.
viii. Mary, bapt. Not found, m. Watford 25 Nov. 1609 John Asbby or Ashby.
"It is hoped that this account will provide a framework for further research into the ancestry of Thomas  Rogers and his wife Alice Cosford. The grandfather William Rogers mentioned a brother Richard in his 1553 will. George Cosford made his "brother" John Wills an overseer of his will in 1601, while the name Gifford given to one of George's sons suggest ties to the Giffard family. All interested parties are encouraged to join in the search. "
1. Robert M. Sherman, ed., Mayflower Families Through Five Generations, 2:James Chilton, Richard More, Thomas Rogers (Plymouth, MA 1978), pp.151-321. The Thomas Rogers material was compiled by Alice W.A. Wesgate, who observes (p. 153) that "nothing at all is known about his ancestry".
2. One of the early Rogers genealogies to present in print this erroneous notion was Annie Arnoux Haxtun, Signers of the Mayflower Compact (repr. Baltimore, 1968); originally published in three parts from 1897 to 1899, this more properly a collection of fairy tales fro children than a serious genealogical study. Without reference to the work of Chester or Waters, and with vague allusions to "authentic" sources, Haxtun championed the idea that Thomas  Rogers descended from John Rogers the Martyr. She also believed that William  Rogers of Long Island and James  Rogers of New London were sons of the Pilgrim Thomas  Rogers. In 1911 John C. Underwood further elaborated on Haxtun's claims in his Lineage of the Rogers Family - England: Embracing John Rogers the Martyr, Emigrant Descendants to America and Issue. Now Thomas  Rogers acquired not only a wife named Grace but also a descent from royalty! (Chester had in fact documented a royal line for the Martyr John Rogers, but Underwood failed to cite any real documentation for the generations between the martyr and the Pilgrim.) Although this "ancestry" was many years ago rejected by the Thomas Rogers Society and the General Society of Mayflower Descendants, the undocumented claims of Haxtun and Underwood continue to appear in print as predictably as the swallows' return to Capistrano. Most recently, for example, Helen Rogers Skelton and Clarence C. Skelton, Rogers-Skelton and Allied Families (Baltimore, 1987) copies Underwood almost verbatim and even adds additional royal descents.
3. Although there are variations, the usual descent claimed for Thomas  Rogers is as son of Thomas Matthew, son of Bernard, son of the Martyr. Chester found no evidence that Bernard had any posterity. Another source would make Thomas  son of (Rev.) John Rogers of Dedham, son of Noah, son of the Martyr (History of Suffolk county, New York (New York 1822), "Town of Huntington", p.6) But Waters proved that (Rev.) John Rogers, father of (Rev.) Nathaniel Rogers of Ipswich, MA, has an entirely different ancestry.
4. For the alleged descent of Giles Rogers of Virginia from Martyr, see Underwood, supra note 2, pp. 30, 32-33.
5. Joseph L. Chester, John Rogers: The Compiler of the First Authorized English Bible, the Pioneer of the English Reformation, and its First Martyr…(London, 1861).
6. Henry F. Waters, "The Rogers Family of the County of Essex, England", New England Historical and Genealogical Register (NEHGR) 41:158:88 (1887).
7. Bradford's History "Of Plymouth Plantation" from the Original Manuscript (Boston, 1898), pp. 553, 537.
8. New York Genealogical and Biographical Record 60:102-04.
9. Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, ed. Records of the Colony of New Plymouth (12 vols., Boston, 1855-61), 1:11.
10. Id., 1:144
11. Henry Martyn Dexter and Morton Dexter, The England and Holland of the Pilgrims (repr. Baltimore, 1978) pp. 572-73, 632.
12. Jeremy D. Bangs, " The Pilgrims and Other English in Leiden Records: Some New Pilgrim Documents", NEHGR 142:207 (1989).
13. Robert S. Wakefield, "Mayflower Passengers Turner and Rogers: Probable Identification of Additional Children", The American Genealogist 52:110-13 (1976).
14. Although Wakefield read "Elsgen" as Elizabeth, Bangs, supra note 12, p. 207, read its English equivalent as Alice Anthony Clements Married Clara Rogiers, widow of Jan Jansz. The relationship if any between Thomas  and Clara has not been determined.
15. For speculation on this point see Eugene A. Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History&People (Salt Lake City, Utah, 1986), pp. 287-88.
16. Thanks to Dr. Sidnee Spencer of Murray, Utah for making a copy of this transcription available. All dates are in Old style.
17. The year 1585 is verified by Mrs. Powell. The date of burial was probably 14 August, since William Rogers made his will on 13 August. An error may have occurred in recopying when the registers were transcribed in 1598.
18. Other relevant Rogers wills were not found in this probate court. 19. Archdeaconry of Northampton, Registered Wills M:30.
20. The invention of the Holy Cross, celebrated 3 May, commemorates Empress Helena's discovery of the True Cross in Palestine in 376 A.D.
21. Archdeaconry of Northampton, Registered Wills V:214. 22. R.L. Greenall, ed., Parish Register of Long Buckby (Leicester, 1971), pp. 18, 28.
23. Archdeaconry of Northampton, Registered Wills W:40.
24. Sherman supra note 1, pp. 103-05; Shurtleff, supra note 9, 1:4, 11, 28, 39, 141, 144, 12:4, 6, 12.
25. Sherman, supra note 1 pp. 159-60.
26. Archdeaconry of Northampton, Registered Wills Z:167.
More About Thomas Rogers:
Burial: August 20, 1639, Burial Hill,New Plymouth, Plymouth, Massachusetts.
Children of Thomas Rogers and Alice Elizabeth Cosford Elsgen are:
- Anne Rogers, d. date unknown.
- Hannah Rogers, d. date unknown.
- Katherine Rogers, d. date unknown.
- Lois Rogers, d. date unknown.
- Mary Rogers, d. date unknown.
- Ruth Rogers, d. date unknown.
- +John Rogers, b. April 06, 1602, Watford, Northampton, England, d. February 11, 1690/91, Marshfield,Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts.
- Joseph Rogers, b. Bef. January 23, 1602/03, d. date unknown.
- Lysbeth Rogers, b. Bef. December 26, 1608, d. date unknown.
- Elizabeth Rogers, b. Bef. November 16, 1617, d. date unknown.
- Grietgen Margaret Rogers, b. 1619, d. date unknown.
- Lydia Rogers, b. November 28, 1619, d. date unknown.
- Alicia Rogers, b. February 03, 1620/21, d. date unknown.