"There are many families of English descent living in North Americatoday who are descendants of Strouds or Strodes.
"As to the origin of the name, some say it is Saxon, and that in theearly Tenth Century it was spelled Strodg. But there are many others who differwith this belief and claim that the name Stroud is of Norman origin. Whicheverits origin may be, all authorities agree that in ancient records it has beenspelled in many different ways -- Strode, Strowde, Strood, and Stroud -- all ofthem often referring to the same person.
"To be better informed about the family of Strouds and Strodes (mostcommon spelling) it is well to know early English history, the history of thatcountry when it was known as Britannia. At that time it was composed ofpresent-day England, Wales, and Southern Scotland; the boundary line between itand Scotland being the Cheviot Hills and the Tweed River. And the firstrecalled mention of it was by the Phoenician traders who went there often toobtain tin.
"Following the Phoenicians came the Romans under Julius Caesar. Thesubjugation of the Britons began in 43 A.D. under Emperor Claudius, and wascompleted under Agricola during the years 78 to 81 A.D. From then it remainedin the Roman hands until 410 A.D.
"When the Romans withdrew from Briton, the Picts and Scots swept downupon it from the North. TheBritons then invited the Teutonic tribes (German) ofAngles, Saxons, and Jutes to come help them drive out the invaders. This theydid, but when they had done so, they turned upon the Britons and drove theminto remote corners of Wales, Cornwall, and Cumberland before they establishedkingdoms of their own -- the Angles in Northumbria, East Anglis and Mercia; theSaxons in Sussex, Essex, and Wessex; and the Jutes in Kent.
"From 827 A.D. to 1016 A.D. there was a long line of Anglo-Saxonsovereigns ruling England. Then came the Danish line of sovereigns, reigninguntil the year 1042 A.D. This was followed by the resotration of Anglo-Saxonsovereigns for twenty-four years.
"In 1066 William, Duke of Normandy (Northwestern France), with about5,000 soldiers, crossed the English channel to invade Sussex and conquer theSaxons. When the Normans won the Battle of Hastings, it meant the submission ofall England to their leader, William the Conqueror.
"William's character was spirited, haughty, and tyrannical, but notwithout a generous portion of affection for his Norman followers. He disgustedhis English subjects in many ways, but especially by the strong partialitywhich he had shown to the Normans -- preferring them in all offices of trustand dignity.
"Descendants of the Normans became the ruling class of England. TheNormans were a race of conquerors, with a genius for law and government. Theyruled England with great ability.
"The English language, literature, and architecture owe much to theNormans. At first the Normans spoke French, but subsequently the Norman Frenchblended with the Germanic tongue of the Anglo-Saxons and became English.
"The Strode family (of Parnham, Dorset County) is an ancient knightlyone, whose original progenitor in England is said to have been Warinus (Warine)de la Strode. This Warinus de la Strode apparently came to England in 1066 in theretinue of William the Conqueror as one of his warriors. It was also claimedthat he was in the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066 when King Harold wasslain. The prefix of 'de la' to the Strode name lends strong credence to theFrench or Norman origin of the family.
"The consequence of the Battle of Hastings was submission of allEngland to William the Conqueror, who had challenged Harold's right to be itsking. As a result of this submission, William was crowned King William I ofEngland on 25 December 1066.
"Early in his reign, King William I introduced into England the feudallaw, dividing the whole Kingdom except the royal demesne in baronies andbestowing most of them, under the tenure of military service, upon his Normanfollowers. Warinus de la Strode, being one of these followers, had a vastestate granted him. He was knighted by King William I.
"From 'Ancient Pedigrees, Evidences, and Records Collected and Drawn'by Sir John Strode, who died in 1636 at the age of 75 years, it is possible tolearn much about these knightly STRODES. Especially can this be done if thechart is used in conjunction with notes of John Hutchins in his The Historyand Antiquities of the County of Dorset.
"By recording the facts listed in this chart, and the notes ofHutchins, much confusion would result if a means to differentiate people werenot used. Accordingly, as had been done by both Sir John Strode and JohnHutchins, capital letters (in parentheses) will be used to distinguish eachsucceeding generation in the early times....
"Warinus de la Strode (A) came to England in the year 1066 A.D. in theretinue of William the Conqueror. Hutchins stated Warinus...'the Normandyfamily of Geofroi, Duke of Bretagne (son, grandson, or nephew), and to haveborne their arms (coat of arms), ermine in a canton sable, an etoile of fivepoints argent.' This is similar to the coat of arms issued to the EnglishStrodes and gives further credence to the origin of the Strodes. The Geogroi,Duke of Bretagne, mansion house stood 11 miles south of Strasbourg, France.
"Warinus' wife's name is not known, but it is known that he obtained anestate upon which he built a commodious manor house (Strode Manor) and livedthere until his death, rearing sons and daughters. His lineal heir was Williamde la Strode.
"William de la Strode, knight (B), inherited Strode Manor from hisfather, and lived there during part of the reign of William the Conqueror,bearing the same arms as did his father, Warinus. William's son and heir wasJohn de Strode, knight. Note that by this time the prefix 'de la' has nowbecome 'de'.
"John de Strode, knight (C), heir of William de Strode, lived at StrodeManor during the time of William Rufus (King William II), the third son ofWilliam I. In a deed, without date and written in French, John de Strodegranted and released to his sone and heir, Hugh (D), land in Lidlinch. Otherdeeds without dates were transferred to John de Strode (C). The use of Frenchprovides further credence to the Norman or French ancestry.
"Hugh de Strode, esquire (D), son and heir of John de Strode, knight(C), lived at Strode Manor during the time of the youngest and only Englishborn son of William the Conqueror, King Henry I. In 1107, Hugh (D) witnessed adeed of John de Windlescore which granted to his brother, Thomas, the custodyof land in Windlescore.
"John de Strode, knight (E), and Robert de Strode, gentlemen (F), werethe sons of Hugh de Strode, esquire (D). John de Strode, knight (E), and heirof Hugh de Strode, esquire (D), by deed without date, gives to his brother,Robert de Strode, gentleman (F), and his own son, Peter, certain land in deFeescent and Middleton; remainder of it to his son, Hugh, brother of Peter. SirJohn Strode (E) lived during the reign of Henry I and Stephen.
"By two deeds without date, David de Childhaye gave to Robert deStrode, gentleman (F), son of Hugh, a manse in Crockhaye. By another deedwithout date, William Foel of Broadwindsor gave this same Robert three acres inOver Wansley. By another deed, Alexander Barnard gave to Robert all his rightsin land in Nether Wansley.
"Hugh de Strode, knight (G), lineal heir of John de Strode, knight (E),lived during the reign of Henry I and Stephen (1100-1154). This Hugh had a sonand lineal heir, Robert de Strode. Robert de Strode (F), son of Hugh de Strode(D), gave to his nephew, Sir Hugh de Strode (G), all his lands and rents inBroadwindsor, West Huestock, Eberworth, Nether Wansley, Over Wansley, WinzorCausey, Overstand le Down and Childhaye, County of Dorset, with house, lands offreemen, and villains, wards, reliefs, heriots, escheats, and liberties there,to him and his heirs; remainder to John, brother of Hugh (G). These landseventually descended to Sir John de Strode, who was the John de Strode whocollected and drew up the pedigree chart of the Parnham Strodes (which is beingfollowed), along with his successors, where he lived until his death in 1636.
"Returning to earlier times, another deed without date, Robert deStrode (F), canon of Sarum, gave to Hugh de Strode, knight (G), his land inWest Huestock, Dibberwood, Over Wansley, Down and Childhaye, which was still inthe family. That this Hugh de Strode lived during the reign of Henry II (1154-1181)is apparent by the character of the writing.
"Robert de Strode, knight (H) was the son of the last written Hugh deStrode, knight. By deed without date, Stephen de Parnham gave to Hawise, hisson, land in vill of Parnham. By another deed, David de Chickley gave toRobert, son of Hugh de Strode, knight (G), and his heir, a house in Windsor.This Robert de Strode lived during the reign of Richard I (1189-1199).
"John de Strode, knight (I), was the son and heir of Robert de Strode,knight (H), and lived during the reign of John and Henry III (1216-1272). Froma record preserved in the Tower the following fact is substantiated: John deStrode, knight (I), was High Sheriff of Somerset and Dorset Counties duringthis time.
"Nicholas de Strode, esquire (K), was the son and heir of John deStrode, knight (I), and grandson of Robert de Strode, knight (H). The LeigerBook of Abbotsbury, then in the hands of Sir John Strangways of Melbury,mentions that Nicholas de Strode, knight (1249), during the reign of Henry III,gave to the abbey his lands and tenements at Tolpuddle.
"John de Strode, knight (L), second son of John de Strode, knight (I),and brother of Nicholas de Strode, esquire (K), lived during the reign of HenryIII.
"Hugh de Strode, knight (M), was son and heir of Nicholas de Strode,esquire (K). He married Beatrix (Beatrice), daughter of John de Bitton, knight,by his wife Hiwisia, daughter and co-heir of Mat Furneaux, County Somerset.This Hugh was living during the reign of Edward I (1272-1307), and was givenland in Childhaye for term of life, at three shilling rent. By Hugh's marriagewith Beatrix Bitton, their descendants were permitted to bear arms (Ermine acanton sable), and his family inherited the manor of Purefurneaux, Strengston,and the Castle of Deusborough on Quantock Hill, also manor of Sharpton.
"Hugh de Strode, knight (N) of Chalmington, son and heir of Hugh deStrode and Beatrix Bitton Strode, married Beatrix, daughter of Fitchett, andtheir descendants were permitted to bear Arms (Gules, a lion rampant or, overall a bend ermine).
"In the sixteenth year of the reign of Edward II, this Hugh released toJohn Chickley and heirs land in Rigge; the same year demised land in Bowdon inthe Ford and Knighton, County Wilts.
"In the seventeenth year of the reign of Edward II (1307-1327), hegranted Henry Strode (O), his son, the said yearly rent for nine years of tenshillings, and after nine years, sixty shillings rent on the land he demised inBowdon in the Ford and Knighton, County Wilts.
"This Hugh de Strode (N), is not styled at Chalmington in the old deedsreferred to in the above notes, which are dated at Hewstock. Hewstock at thetime was probably his residence. The ancient places of residence of the Strodefamily were at Strode Manor and Hewstock, until Richard Strode (S) during thetime of Henry VI (1422-1461), moved to Parnham. Occasionally the familiesresided at Chalmington; and also at Chantmarle, after Sir John Strode, who hadpurchased Chantmarle and rebuilt the house, had succeeded to the family mansionat Parnham.
"Henry de Strode, esquire (O), son of Hugh de Strode, knight (N), andBeatrix Fitchet Strode, married Maud (or Matilda), daughter and heir of deBauprea (Beaupres). By the marriage of Henry with Matilda de Bauprea, the manorof Middleway and Inclestreet came into this family. Henry demised a tenement atStapleford for life at eight shillings rent.
"In 1361, during the reign of Edward III (1327-1377), John, bishop of... Badensis, by indenture under his seal, gives forty days pardon to all whowould pray for the souls of Henry, his wife Maud (Matilda), John his son, andJoan his daughter, who had given goods for the advancement of a chapel inChalmington in Catstock. In 1366 and 1370, Robert, Bishop of Sarum, byindenture, under the seal of Edward III, granted forty days pardon to those whoshould pray for the souls of said Henry, Matilda, wife of Henry, and Beatrice,mother of Henry, who had liberally given their goods to said chapel.
"Hugh de Strode, esquire (P), son and heir of Henry de Strode andMatilda, married Beatrix (Beatrice) de Button and had issue: Henry, son andheir; Edmund; and daughter, Jane. In the 24th year of the reign of Edward III,Maud (Matilda), wife of Henry de Strode (O) and mother of Hugh de Strode (P),granted to him and Beatrix his wife, her lands, etc. in Hewstock, NetherWansley, Chalmington and Lidlinch for her life at ten shillings rent andnecessary diet, lodging and apparel. Also in this list she included diet forher son Edmund.
"In the forty-fourth year of the reign of Edward III, Hugh de Strodewas granted the land of Strode in Lidlinch for life at the rent of four marks.
"Edmund de Strode (Q) was the second son of Henry and Matilda. Hisbrother Hugh (P) confirmed to him for life the grant of Maud, his mother, oflands in Nether Wansley and Broadwindsor.
"Edmund (Q) gave the manor of Hemsworth to the abbey of Milton duringthe tenth year of the reign of Richard II. In this grant Edmund made to the abbeyand convent of Milton, he said that he had by deed in the second year of thereign of Richard II, also granted all his land in Clifton and in Brod Sidlingto the abbot with warranty.
"Henry de Strode, esquire (R), son and heir of Hugh de Strode, knight(P), and Matilda de Bauprea Strode, married Elizabeth, daughter and heir ofJohn and Joan Brent. Their son and heir was Richard de Strode, esquire, ofParnham, and was the great-great-grandson of Hugh and Beatrice Fitchett. He andhis descendants bore Arms (Gules, a wyvern argent).
"By deed during the reign of Richard II (1377-1399), Hugh de Strode(P), then of Hewstock, granted to Henry (R), his son and heir, his lands, etc.... in Hewstock, Dibberworth, Causey, Hurst at le Dorn in Broadwindsor, Lidlinch,Stapleford, and Le Crenelle, County Dorset, with their rents, services, wardsand marriages, reserving two chambers with the cellars under them, and withhalf the loft of the pigeon house there, and all his lands in County Wilts,with rents, etc. ... paying twenty marks per annum.
"Richard de Strode, esquire (S), was the fifteenth in descent from hisancestor, William de la Strode, son of Warinus. This Richard Strode, esq. wasthe son and heir of Hugh de Strode (P) and Elizabeth Brent Strode, and was twicemarried. His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter and heir of John Jerard(Gerard). His second wife was Margaret, relict of Walter Chantmarle. Margaretdied without having issue by Richard. Richard and Elizabeth had sons: Edmund,son and heir, and William de Strode, esquire.
"Richard de Strode (S) and Elizabeth moved to Parnham during the reignof King Richard II (1377-1399). They had lived at West Hewstock in Berminster.Hutchins reported that Elizabeth inherited Parnham from her parents, JohnJerard and Elizabeth Chaldecot (Chickly). Vestiges of Parnham remain and stillshow where it is reported to have stood. It was still in the family in the mid1900's.
"William de Strode, esquire (T), first son and heir of Richard deStrode, esquire of Parnham and Elizabeth Jerard Strode married Alys (Alice),daughter and heir of Roger Ledred (de Leddred), esquire.
"In the 36th year of Henry VI's (1422-1462) reign, by fine granted toJohn Nelway Etc. ... land in West Haygrove, Trent, Horsington, Higham,Netherham, Stowel, South Cadbury, Bobcary, Somerston, Ilchester, Langport,Estover, and Weston, County Somerset; the manor of North Week, land inAxminster, Okeber, Trill and Chilton, County Devon; and they rendered toWilliam (T) and Alys and the heirs of Alys the said manors and lands; remainderto the right heirs of Robert Ledred. By this marriage of William de Strode (T)with Alys Ledred the lands mentioned came into the Strode family.
"The said William de Strode (T) by a letter of attorney in the 14thyear of Edward IV's reign authorizes a person to deliver to William (U) hisson, lands in the manors of Chalmington, Debberworth, Buckham, Bell andBlackdown, County of Dorset; and Boyden, County of Wilts. Records show a deedof feoffment made by William (T) to William (U), the son.
"William de Strode (U) of Chalmington married Alianor, daughter of JohnCheney (Cheyen) of Pinho, County Devon. The issues of William (U) and AlianorStrode were: Richard, heir; William, and John. Richard, first born, diedwithout a male issue, so William the second son became heir.
"The third son, John (V) married Joan Okele (Okle), daughter of JohnOkele and became the progenitor to the line of Shepton Mallet Strodes.
"In John Collinson's History of West Cranmore, he states thatthe name of Strode in Shepton-Mallet has for at least four hundred years been awell known one. And he also says that the Strodes were persons of good socialposition and wealth, and that some of them, during the most eventful times, andunder the most difficult and trying circumstances, strongly stood their groundand resolutely resisted their oppressor, even at the risk of their own livesand loss of personal wealth. This is an understatement as will be shown in thefollowing ....
"John de Strode (V), the third son of William and Alianor de Strode,was progenitor of the Shepton-Mallet Strodes in County Somerset. He marriedJoan Okele by whom he had son and heir, Walter Strode (W), who succeeded him tothe Shepton-Mallet estate. Walter's son and heir was Thomas Strode. Note thatthe prefix 'de' has been dropped from the Strode name."
Thomas STRODE was born about 1493 at Shepton Mallet, Somerset,England, the son of John de Strode and Joan Okele.
He married ?.
Their children, born at Shepton Mallet, were:
- John, born about 1513,inherited the estate at Shepton Mallet, had a son Stephen who married MaryHodges and had heir Thomas Strode of Wells, styled at Shepton Mallet in1623, and John died after 3 March 1555; and
- Edward, born about1515.
Edward STRODE was born about 1515 at Shepton Mallet, Somerset,England, the son of ThomasStrode and ?.
He married AliceWhiting at Somerset.
The LDS Ancestry File reports that their children, all born at SheptonMallet, were (Wallace Barr reports only Thomas, William and Edward with nodates):
- John, born about 1536;
- Agnes, born about 1538;
- Thomas, born about 1540,married Eleanor Blanchard about 1565 at Batcomb, Somerset, and died atBatcomb on 7 June 1625;
- Richard, born about 1542;
- Anne, born about 1544,married John Ashe about 1564 at Shepton Mallet, and died after February1592;
- Jone, born about 1546;
- Edward, born about 1548,married Alice Pore about 1585 at Wiltshire County, England, and died on 3October 1608 at Shepton Mallet;
- Thomas, born about 1552 anddied in 1625 at Batcomb; and
- William, born about1566 (date appears questionable).
The LDS Ancestry File reports that Edward died on 3 March 1555 at SheptonMallet. However, Wallace Barr reports that his will was proved 11 October 1593.
William STRODE was born about 1566 at Shepton Mallet, Somerset,England, the son of EdwardStrode and AliceWhiting.
He was a clothier.
He married ElizabethUpton at Worminster, Near Wells, Somerset.
Their children, all born at Shepton Mallet, were:
- Geoffrey, born about 1581,married Elizabeth Filliol about 1605 at Marnhull, Dorset, England, latermarried Sarah Barnard (sister of William's wife Joan) about 1620 atShepton Mallet, and died on 31 January 1624/5 at Shepton Mallet;
- George, born about 1583,married Rebecca Crispe on 11 February 1615 at All Hallows Church, London,had nine sons and four daughters, was a wealthy clothier of Shepton Malletand provided generously to the church there, and died in 1663, beingburied on 2 June 1663 at St. James Church, Clerkenwell, Middlesex, England;
- Mary, born about 1586 aanddied after 1640;
- Thomasine, born about 1587;
- William, born in1589; and
- Thomasine, born on 22February 1593 and married Thomas Bayley about 1612 at Batcomb, Somerset,England.
William died on 22 August 1592 at Shepton Mallet.
William STRODE was born in 1589 at Shepton Mallet, Somerset, England,the son of William Strodeand ElizabethUpton.
He married Joan(or Joanne) Barnard in 1621 at Downside, Shepton Mallet.
Their children were:
- William, married ElizabethHivett in 1656, had 1 son and 3 daughters, and died on 19 February1694/95;
- Edward, born 22 August 1623at Shepton Mallet and buried on 2 April 1629 at the Parish Church, SheptonMallet;
- John, born about 1627 atBarrington, had two daughters, and died on 7 February 1705/6 at Odcombe,Somerset;
- Edward, born 2 April1629/30;
- Elizabeth, born in 1635 atBarrington and married John Howe at Barrington on 20 April 1659;
- George, baptized atBarrington on 9 October 1636 and reportedly had four sons;
- Jane, born about 1640 atBarrington, married John Wyndham in 1659 at Barrington, and her will wasproved on 19 August 1699 at Dunraven Castle, Glamorgan, Wales;
- Johanna, born about 1642,married Henry Hickman in 1667 in England, and died in 1677;
- Essex, baptized on 7 November1646 at Barrington, married Mary Strode (daughter of Sir George, hiscousin) after 1659 at London, England, and was buried at Westminster,Middlesex, England;
- Barnard, baptized on 20August 1649 at Barrington, probably died in 1685; and
- Mary, born about 1648 anddied the same year.
"William followed commercial pursuits from which he acquired greatwealth and reputation for integrity and honesty. In 1627 he purchased theestate of Barrington Court, in Somerset County, which had a great mansion houseupon it. Then in a very short time, he became owner of many other estates -- atMartlock, Glastonbury, Street, and other places in Somersetshire.
"In Richard Symond's Diary, Symond states that 'William Strode ...lived at Barrington -- 3 myle from Ilminister -- had another house at Street,and hath all the parsonages between this town and Barrington ... his wealth wasobtained by being a factor in Spain and the inheritance he received from hisfather, William Strode, who was a clothier in Shepton-Mallet ...'
"The Strodes served over a 200 year period as members of Parliamentfrom Somerset County. William Strode was reelected as a member of Parliament torepresent Ilchester, County Somerset in 1640. Thus he served his county in oneof the most momentous times in English history. The Long Parliament (1640-1653)had two William Strodes as members. This has caused much confusion.
"The similarities of names and principals for which both stood causedthis William Strode of Barrington and the William Strode, 'one of five members'impeached by Charles I, to be confused by historians, who should have knownbetter. While William Strode of Barrington was in Parliament, having beenreturned there from the borough of Ilchester, and being a member of the LongParliament of 1640, he could not have been one of the 'five members' for thefollowing reasons:
"William Strode, M.P. -- 'The Member' -- died in 1645 and was buried inHenry VII's Chapel in Westminster Abbey. William Strode of Barrington did notdie until 1666.
"That there were two contemporary William Strodes, who were members ofthe Long Parliament, is clearly proven by the Calendar of State Papers, '...Proclamation for the apprehension of William Strode of the County of Devon, whowas accused of sedition ... was one of the representatives of the borough ofBeer Alston in Devonshire.
"In Collision's Notes and Queries, Second Series, Volume XII, onpage 461, '...William Strode, 'the member' ... son of Sir William Strode ofDevon ... Beer Alson ... Long Parliament of 1640 ... died 1645.' To compoundconfusion the fathers of these two Williams were also named William.
"William Strode, M.P. for Ilchester in the Long Parliament of 1640, wasson of William Strode, clothier of Shepton-Mallet ... he distinguished himselfby opposition to the King's authority in Somersetshire ... The State Papersabound with notices of him during this period, and he appears to have been asource of trouble and annoyance to the King, the Bishop, and the Sheriff ...funeral for him was held in the year 1666.
"There is more than sufficient evidence to distinguish between the twoWilliam Strodes. Both were heavily involved in the opposition to King Charles Ias members of Parliament. This mistaken identity has caused much confusion andmisinformation amongst Strode descendants in the U.S. Many American descendantshave claimed descent from William of Devonshire, the 'one of five members'impeached. In many cases the tradition has been perpetuated withoutdocumentation. We feel confident that William Strode of Barrington,Somersetshire is the correct ancestor to the line of Strodes beingtraced."
William died on 20 December 1666 at Barrington and was buried at Beminster,Dorset, England.
Wallace Barr, Jr., in The Strode - Barr Descendancy includes achapter entitled "The Strodes of Shepton Mallet and Civil War"(referencing The Shepton Mallet Story: A Brief Historical Sketch by FredDavis, Alan Blandford and Lewis Beckerleg, The Shepton Mallet Society, OakhillPress, Oakhill, Somerset, United Kingdom, 1977, Chapter VI, Civil War, pp.45-77) which sheds much light on the turbulence of the times for the Englandand for the Strode family:
"Charles I became king in 1625 when the country was in a troubled anddisturbed state. During the first four years of his reign, he called threeparliaments, with all of which he quarreled and dismissed. Thus, Charlesreigned without a parliament in an arbitrary and oppressive manner for elevenyears. In 1640 he was forced to call Parliament. William Strode (1589-1666,discussed above) was an elected member of this parliament from Ilchester,Somerset County. This Parliament is known as the Long Parliament because it wasin session from 1640 to 1653.
"This chapter will focus on the role of William Strode in the Civil Warand his descendants' role in the rebellion led by the Duke of Monmouth. It willhelp to explain why some of the Strodes came to America and provides somebackground for the difficulties in tracing our ancestry in a precise manner inthe late 1600's and early 1700's.
"By 1640 confidence in the King had waned to low levels; he could notbe trusted and the country was in danger of anarchy. During the debate, theKing's friends in Parliament became known as 'Royalists' or 'Cavaliers'. Theopposition led by Oliver Cromwell received its chief support from themerchants, shop keepers, small free holders and a whole body of non-conformistsand puritan members of the Church of England. The opposition were known as'Roundheads' or 'Parliamentarians'. The Royalists were largely the nobles,clergy, country gentlemen, Roman Catholics, and others who disliked puritanausterity.
"The demands (19 propositions) of Parliament were such that the Kingwould become a puppet. At this point (1642) Charles I chose to draw the swordand the situation reached its climax on the battlefield in a storm of violenceusually witnessed only in civil or religious strife. This was a combination ofboth.
"The following description of events occurred in Somerset County andlargely in Shepton Mallet. The Marquess of Hertford, heading up the Royalists'efforts headquartered in Wells, north of Shepton Mallet, issued warrants toseveral 'hundred' of people requiring them to supply men and arms.
"The Deputy Lieutenant of the County retaliated by issuing warrantsinstructing the 'hundred' to ignore the Marquess and to adhere to Parliament.The Deputy Lieutenant and committee announced a meeting to be held at SheptonMallet on 1 August 1642 to take measures to preserve the peace.
"The Marquess at Wells instructed Sir Ralph Hopton, M.P., RoyalistThomas Smith, and Sir Fernando Gorges with 100 mounted Cavaliers to ride toShepton Mallet and publish the Commission of Array.
"The following morning Colonel William Strode, hearing of Sir RalphHopton's intentions, rode from his manor house with his son and four servants,all but two of them well armed. They reached the marketplace in Shepton Malletabout the same time as Sir Ralph Hopton and his Cavaliers. Colonel Strodedemanded to know the reason for the Cavaliers' visit and such a show of arms.Sir Ralph bid him to alight and hear the petition read. To which Col. Strodebarked: 'I came not to hear petitions, but to suppress insurrections', andconsiderably aroused, demanded they leave town. In reply, Sir Ralph laid holdof Col. Strode and arrested him on suspicion of treason.
"In the struggle that ensued, Sir Fernando Gorges struck Col. Strodewith a halbert (similar to a pikestaff) knocking Col. Strode from his horse. Anumber of Cavaliers drew their swords and held their points toward his body.Seeing this, one of Col. Strode's servants drew a pistol and held it to SirRalph Hopton, and would have killed him but for a quick witted Sheptonian (aMr. White) who snatched the pistol from him.
"Col. Strode thus arrested was handed over to the local constable. SirRalph started to read the Royalist Petition, and asked for supporters to comeforward. After much mumbling and cursing from the large and rapidly growingcrowd, only one man stepped forward, one Nicholas Dawton, which Col. Strode wasasked to notice. To which he shouted: 'This is of no surprise to me. For thisman is but one of the incendiaries of the town, but we are of the County and ofParliament and I demand, therefore, sir, you quit the town.' On this theconstable was instructed to take Colonel Strode before the Marquess of Hertfordat Wells.
"But shortly, a disturbance from the direction of Town Street caused adistraction. A single Cavalier came at full gallop and forced his way throughthe dense crowd to Sir Ralph Hopton's side and told him that many country folkwere closing in on Shepton Mallet in support of Col. Strode. At this news SirRalph Hopton and his Cavaliers turned and rode in haste from Shepton Mallet, amuch disillusioned and angry man. He and his followers, on retreat, werespreading violence and terror amongst those he met.
"Following the departure of the Cavaliers, the poor constable becamethe center of abuse and was compelled to release Col. Strode or lose his life.Col. Strode, one of Shepton Mallet's most wealthy clothiers, was loved andrespected by rich and poor alike. Learning of the meeting, the tradesmen,yeomen and peasants swarmed to his support.
"Before noon, without warrant or request, upwards of 2,000 people hadjoined Col. Strode's ranks. Scouts reported that many people coming to joinCol. Strode were met by the Royalists and were beaten and wounded withammunition and supplies taken from them.
"As a result of the cowardly attacks, charges and counter chargesbetween the Parliamentarians' and the Royalists' forces occurred. In anotherattempt to read the Commission of Array, Lord Hertford left Wells for SheptonMallet. He was met about half way by Col. Strode and one hundred fiftyhorsemen. After much debate, a treacherous assault was made on Col. Strode'sregiment. At least a dozen were cut to pieces and many more injured. Despitethe element of surprise, the Marquess was not able to stand it and turned tailto Wells.
"The Marquess of Hertford wrote a long letter to the House of Lords 25August 1642 of which a small portion said '...that William Strode and GeorgeMalliard had made great preparation of arms and ammunition in the towns'houses, and divers low persons had given out that such and such houses shouldbe fired and the streets should run with blood.'
"From an original document, being a Parliamentary levey, signed byWilliam Strode of Shepton Mallet and dated 26th August 1644 'Whereas, thiscounty hath extraordinarily suffered in their persons, goods, houses, lands andestates by great and bloody cruelties, oppressions, extortions, and many otherwicked invertures of papist cavaliers, and other enemies ... for the preventionof further mischief, and for the preservation of the true protestant religion... and by the authority of Parliament, require and command you to raise withinyour hundred fiftie able men of body and to arme them with the best armes youhave or can provide and bring them to this town...'
"Later, at what became known as the 'Siege of Wells', the city founditself surrounded by Parliamentarian guns on the Bristol, Glastonbury andShepton Mallet sides. Col. Strode had 2,000 men, ordinances, and a hundred andfifty horses. The Royalists evacuated the city. Following this the Royalistsand Roundheads marched and counter marched throughout the unhappy land leavingbloodshed, violence and death in their wake. Both Royalists andParliamentarians took their toll on Shepton Mallet, probably more from thelatter, for Puritan fanaticism made sad havoc on many ecclesiastical buildings.
"Following the capture and execution of Charles I in 1649, the peopleof Shepton Mallet returned to manufacturing and to agriculture. The townreturned with vigor to both work and leisure.
"Yet the day was not far distant when Shepton Mallet would play andeven more intimate part in another drama, more bloody, more violent, than ithad yet experienced -- that of the Duke of Monmouth's abortive attempt for theCrown, so bringing a reign of terror upon this town more terrible than Englishhistory has hitherto known.
"The Strodes were heavily involved in this rebellion. There are variousaccounts of how William Strode (?-1694), eldest son and heir of William Strode(1589-1666), entertained the Duke of Monmouth in 1680 at Barrington. In theyear 1685, the Duke of Monmouth made an attempt to obtain the throne of Englandfrom his uncle, King James II. William Strode was in sympathy with Monmouth andsent him supplies of horses and money.
"While he did this, he was not the only member (of the family) whoopenly aided Monmouth. William's brother, Edward Strode of Downside, gave thisRoyal Rebel one hundred guineas. The gift of these guineas was not the only aidthat Edward rendered. After the dreadful battle of Sedgmore, Somerset County,Monmouth fled to Shepton Mallet on the 6th day of July 1686. His trusy friend,Edward Strode, at the risk of his own life and fortune, gave the unfortunatefugitive shelter at Downside for the night. Monmouth presented Edward Strodewith his brace of pistols as a token of gratitude for the loyalty shown him.
"Retribution came thick and fast for the rebels. Colonel Kirke with alarge band of cavalry was sent to Somersetshire to 'teach the rebels a lesson.'Kirke and his forces extorted large sums of money from those that were able topay. Edward Strode of Downside was among this group. His brother, William musthave been able to buy his pardon. The accused who were poor were sentencedwithout trial and hanged.
"But King James II, feeling that many rich delinquents had escaped formoney, sent Lord Chief Justice Jeffreys into the West County. He was the mostdiabolic judge that ever sat on the bench. Jeffreys was a murderous circuitjudge who conducted what has become known as the Bloody Assize. Upward of 300persons were executed after short trials; many were whipped, imprisoned andfined, and nearly 1,000 were sent as slaves to American plantations. JudgeJeffreys was rewarded by King James II with the post of lord high chancellor.After King James abdicated, the chancellor was committed to the Tower, where hedied in disgrace.
"Edward Strode who gave Monmouth one hundred guineas and providedshelter while he was on the run, was granted a pardon, solely through hisability to pay for it (reportedly 40 Pounds). Perry (Octavia J. Perry in ASaga of Strouds and Strodes, Deford and Co., Baltimore, Maryland, 1966, p45) says: 'Bernard Strode, the fifth son of William and Joan Barnard Strode,was beheaded in the Bloody Assize.' There is American tradition that Barnardwas beheaded but full substantiation is lacking. On 10th March 1686 an amnestyor proclamation of pardon was issued for all those involved in the rebellionled by Monmouth.
"Obviously, Edward Strode of Downside was heavily involved in theMonmouth led rebellion of 1685. But he survived the times and remained atDownside, undoubtedly because of his wealth. This is contrary to information inthe book by Perry and perpetuated by other Strode descendants. She suggeststhat he fled to France and/or Holland with his children and sickly wife andeventually to the colonies. Elston does not make this error.
"Photos taken in the Rectory of St. Peter and St. Paul Church inShepton Mallet in 1986 provide proof to the contrary. There are numerousplaques and busts of the generosity of the Strodes. Two in particular areimportant in tracing Edward's (1630-1703) family. The first is a plaque in theRectory stating 'Memory of Joan (Goninge) Strode, wife of edward Strode. Mrs.Joan Strode of Downside, England who had by him 10 children, 5 sons and 5daughters of which 4 of them lyeth here underneath intered by her to wit:William, Edward, Edward, and Mary. The other six children are now living withtheir father to wit: Edward, John, Elizabeth, Johanna, Jane and Mercy. She(Joan) died 1st of April 1679 in the 40th year of her age.'
"There is another important plaque in the Shepton-Mallet parish churchthat says 'Here Relieth Edward Strode of Downside -- he departed this life the23rd of October 1703 at the age of 73 years.'
"Still another plaque states 'Strode Bread Charity Jan. 23, 1699.Edward Strode by his will established the charity and Elizabeth, his daughter,by her will added to the fund; Rents of Farms at Winsor Hill (Downside), SunInn and Cottage, Townsend, Mendip and the annual dividend of L1407.16.11 atConsolidated Bank.'
"In Elston's Vol. II there is a chart that supplies basic informationon William (1593-1666) and on Edward's (1630-1703) children. Edward's willabstracted by Mr. Robert Massey at the request of Elston and showed the willwas dated 24 September 1697 at Shepton Mallet. Elizabeth, his unmarrieddaughter, was executrix. The will was proved in London 24 January 1703/04.Edward's will mentions son John and 4 daughters and their children. Moreimportantly it says 'my son, Edward, deceased.' Thus Edward must have writtenhis will sometime after Edward (born about 1665), our ancestor, died enroute tothe New World with his family of small children.
"In Elizabeth Strode's will of 1715, there is mention made of her threesisters and their children, but no mention of Edward or John (her brothers).Elizabeth must have retained the rebellious ways of her father and otherStrodes. Mention is made of her non-conformist ways and activities.
"The well documented will of Edward Strode and his daughter Elizabethplus the inscriptions in place as of 1986 in the Shepton Mallet churchidentifies Edward's family. The will of Edward dated 24 September 1697 gives uspositive proof that his son Edward was deceased prior to the writing of thewill. Tradition in the U.S. has been that Edward died in 1703. The documentedhistory is much more reliable than word of mouth tradition.
"The generosity of the Strode family of Shepton Mallet was initiated inthe early 1600's and continued for about a century. There is a plaque at therectory that recognizes the 'Strode School Charity.' Founded by George Strode,clothier of Shepton Mallet in County of Somerset in 1627, May 14. The objectsof the Charity are the education of Poor children of the Parish of SheptonMallet, and the Relief of Poor Widows to be nominated Alms women of the Charityby the Trustees. Rectorial tithes of parish of Meare in County Somerset, Annualrent of Globe land at Meare and annual rent at Turbury land at Meare.' Georgewas a brother of William and an uncle of Edward of Downside."
Edward STRODE was born in 1630 at Barrington, Somerset, England, theson of William Strodeand Joan Barnard.
He married JoanGunning in 1658 at Bristol, Gloucester, England.
Their children, all born at Downside, Shepton Mallet, were:
- William, born 8 July 1660 anddied there, being buried on 24 March 1661/2;
- Edward, born about 1661 anddied before 1663;
- Edward, born about 1663 anddied before 1665;
- Mary, born about 1664 anddied before 1679;
- Edward, born about1665;
- John, born about 1667, baptized13 October 1675, married Frances Wyndham, and died after 1697;
- Elizabeth, born about 1669,died in 1715, and her will was proved there on 9 August 1715;
- Joanna, born about 1671 anddied there on 26 November 1687;
- Jane, born about 1673,married Joseph Browne there about 1693 and died after 20 March 1712 inSomerset;
- Mercy, born about 1674,married Francis Wyndham about 1692 and died in 1722; and
- Mary, born in 1675, baptizedat Shepton Mallet on 13 October 1675 and buried there on 23 April 1676.
He died on 23 October 1703 at Shepton Mallet and was buried there in theRectory at the Parish Church.
Edward STRODE was born about 1663 to 1668, probably at Downside,Shepton Mallet, Somerset, England, the son of Edward Strode and Joan Goninge.
His wife's name is not known.
Their children, possibly born in England, France and/or Holland, were:
- George, born in 1685;
- Samuel, born about 1687,married Anna ?, and died about 13 May 1765 in Loudoun County, Virginia,his will being recorded 13 November 1769;
- William, born in 1688 anddied in 1746;
- Edward, born in 1690;
- Martha, married Morgan Bryanin 1719 and died on 29 August 1762 in North Carolina; and maybe
"Elston quoting Hutchins from The History and Antiquities of theCounty Dorset says, 'After the accession in 1691 (correct date 13 February1689) of Queen Mary and King William to the English Throne, Edward Stroderefused to take the oath they demanded of him, and was fined forty pounds. Thefollowing year another order was issued by the Justice of the Quarter Session.This order was that the oath be administered again, and if Edward Strode stillrefused, he should be committed to the gaol.' Perry uses the same quote butnote the error in date of accession to the throne in both cases. Neitherchecked their history books.
"The preponderance of evidence is that an Edward Strode, wife andchildren fled England and went to France and/or Holland. We know it was notEdward Strode (1630-1703) because he died in England in 1703. It must have beenEdward (born c.1665), son of Edward of Downside, that fled England.
"It is very likely that Edward Strode (born c.1665) with his wife fledto France or Holland in the reign of James II (1685-1688). The Strodes wereobviously strong Protestants. In addition, Edward of Downside's variousepisodes with the Duke of Monmouth and possible complicity of Edward (his son)could have been more than enough reason for him to flee 'with his wife,children and kinfolk.'
"If Edward fled England after William and Mary attained the throne(1689), as indicated by Hutchins, there may have been other circumstances thatencouraged such action as a fine and threat to send Edward to jail. Obviously,the Strodes were non-conformist and rebellious.
"Reports vary as to the destination of the fleeing Strodes. Somecontend they went to France to join the Huguenots and, due to persecution,later fled to Holland prior to coming to the New World on the Paysay.Numerous accounts written by various U.S. descendants refer to 'Hollander' orHuguenots (French Protestants). Tradition is not proof, but when accounts fromwidely differing sources make similar references, there is a strong likelihoodof a shred of truth.
"It is agreed, I believe, that Edward, father of the Strode children --George, Samuel, William, Edward, and probably of Martha and maybe Jeremiah, andkinfolk Barnard -- died on the Paysay (bound for America) shortly beforedocking at port (probably Philadelphia) and was buried in New Jersey.
"This voyage must have been in 1697, though tradition says 1703. The1697 date seems the most logical, given Edward Strode's (1630-1703) will dated24 September 1697 referring to 'my son, Edward, deceased.' In addition, Elstonquotes from Administration of Estates Record Bk. A 1683-1700, Philadelphia,Pennsylvania that 'the estate of Edward Stroud of Philadelphia, intestate,granted 12 October 1699 to George Strode, chief creditor and next of kin.'
"We do not know if and how George Strode was related to the orphans.George Strode was born about 1660 and was taxed on 300 acres in ConcordTownship, Chester County, Pennsylvania in 1689.
"The four male orphans, according to the family history of EdwardStrode, would have been 7 to 12 years of age in 1697. Martha and Jeremiah'sages were unknown but probably younger. Barnard, probably a nephew of Edward,was provided for by Nicholas Depui, living at Amwell, New Jersey. The otherorphans may have been in New Jersey too. But Elston feels they were bound outafter they landed until of legal age near the Strodes in Chester County,Pennsylvania, which is just across the Delaware river from New Jersey.
"...In The Gosney Family by Georgia G. Winda, 'The Bryans and afamily named Strode who were Hollanders but who were living in France, wereProtestants and had to flee from their home on account of religiouspersecution; came to America on the same boat. The Strode parents died on thevoyage, leaving three children: Martha, Jeremiah and Samuel. They were inChester County when Morgan Bryan married Martha Strode in 1719.' Note thisquote fails to list all the orphan Strodes that fled Europe.
"Elston feels strongly that (c.1690-c.1795) was on the tax lists ofChester County, Pennsylvania from 1718 to 1735. The limiting dates fit togetherbetter than could be hoped for. Edward probably was born about 1690, came tothe tax lists in 1718-1721 in New Garde, in Marlborough in 1722-35, and lists150 acres in Chester County, Pennsylvania 29 January 1733.
"Some of the Strodes, Bryans and others apparently left Chester County,Pennsylvania in 1734/35 when they secured a 100,000 acre grant in FrederickCounty, Virginia, later to become Berkeley County, Virginia and still laterBerkeley County, West Virginia.
"The author believes the family history (given here) of Edward Strodeis the most probable. Traditions given in numerous accounts say 'were descendedfrom Edward Strode, Esq. of England.' Also, the names in the Virginia familyare remarkably similar to those traced in England. Their names are not common(other than William) in the English Strodes of Devon, famous for the 'one ofthe five members' of the Long Parliament. The third reason is that the Virginiafamily tradition in the coat of arms was 'sun, moon and star.' A maincharacteristic was the 'crescent' (moon) and 'etoille' (star). The DevonshireStrode's arms characteristically were three conies (rabbits)."
Edward STRODE was born about 1690, probably in France or Holland, theson of Edward Strode and?.
He married Eleanor(or Elinor) Shepard.
Their children, apparently all born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, were:
- Susannah, born 29 May 1721;
- Edward, born 2 June 1723 anddied in 1749;
- Letitia (or Letia);
- James, born 26 December 1727,married (1) Anne Hamilton Forman in 1755 at Shephardstown, BerkeleyCounty, had three daughters, married (2) Chloe (Cloey) Chenowith on 29March 1787 at Berkeley County, they had two children, married (3)Elizabeth Fryatt in 1794, and died in 1795 at Berkeley County, WestVirginia;
- John (Capt.), born on 11January 1729, married Mary Polly Boyle on 25 November 1758 at Culpepper County,Virginia, had twelve children, and died 18 August 1805 at Clark County,Kentucky and was buried at Strode Station, Graveyard, Clark County,Kentucky;
- Jeremiah, born on 4 July1732, married Margaret Foreman in 1758, had eight children, and died in 1785at Berkeley County, West Virginia.
"No one is absolutely sure where Edward Strode lived after leavingChester County, Pennsylvania. This is understandable since records are sketchyor non-existent in Virginia because of changing boundaries. For example,Berkeley County, West Virginia, was once Berkeley County, Virginia. The countywas formed out of a part of Frederick County, Virginia in 1772; FrederickCounty from Orange County, in 1738; and Orange from Spotsylvania County in1734.
"Edward eventually settled on Opequon Creek at the juncture with thePotomac River and built a stone fort which became known as the Strode FortFarm. An article in the Kentucky Citizen said, 'In 1758, Edward Strode suppliedprovisions for the army in the French and Indian War. There are traditionalstories of heroism on the part of the Strode women when the fort was attackedin the absence of men.'
"In the Berkeley County Deed Book 2, page 86, 10 June 1773, EdwardStrode of Berkeley County sold to his son, Jeremiah Strode, for 100 pounds,part of a greater tract of land granted to Morgan Bryan by our Sovereign Lordthe King, 3 October 1734, which was conveyed to Joseph Bryan 16 August 1744 andhe to Edward Strode 14 May 1752. The land was located on Opequon Creek containing360 acres. The land was part 'of a tract granted to Morgan Bryan for 1,250acres.'
"Morgan Bryan's wife was Martha Strode, presumably Edward's sister. Itis entirely plausible that the Edward Strode's made their way to Virginia withMorgan Bryan in the mid 1730's. Pennsylvania Archives III, Chester CountyWarranties of Land list Edward as selling 150 acres 29 January 1733. Hepresumably would do this to move to Virginia.
"There are land grants that show Edward transferring land to sons Johnand James in Frederick County (later Berkeley County), Virginia. A sale to Johnwas for 400 acres, dated 4 April 1751.
"On 19 November 1761, Edward and Elinor, his wife, sold land on Opekon.On 7 June 1773, Edward Strode sold 360 acres to his son Jeremiah for L100. Elinorwas still living in 1777 when she witnessed a deed. Bergen (Bergen Papers:Historic Record 12) quotes a letter dated 26 July 1786 that says, 'the OldGentleman and Widow of Jeremiah Strode'. The old gentleman must have beenEdward who would have been in his 90's at that time.
"Edward's age at death has been perpetuated at 108 years. There is noproof or mention of a year by anyone. It seems unlikely that he lived to 1795,which would make him 105, if born in 1690. Capt. James Strode was living inBerkeley County and he died in 1795. He was a wealthy man and left a detailedwill mentioning his third wife and children and grandchildren by his first twowives. No mention was made of a father. He surely would have made provisionsfor an aged father, if the father was alive. It seems likely to the author thatEdward died after July 1786 ad prior to 1795. If this is correct, Edward's ageat death could have been 96 to 105 -- a very long life indeed. If he did liveto be 108 (1690-1798) as perpetuated by tradition, he outlived four of his sixchildren.
"There is very little hard evidence of what happened to Edward Strode'sbrothers, George, Samuel and William Strode. Elston theorizes that SamuelStrode lived in Chester County, Pennsylvania in the 1720's but moved to westernPennsylvania later. William, he suggests, lived in Fayette County,Pennsylvania. George seems to have disappeared.
"The Bryan-Boone traditions says that Morgan and Martha Strode Bryanhad 5 children when they moved to Frederick County, Virginia, probably 1734.They had a total of nine children. The oldest was Joseph, who sold EdwardStrode 360 acres of land in 1752.
"Elston quotes an article from the Virginia Historical Magazinethat 'Alexander Ross and Morgan Bryan founded upon this grant a colony ofFriends, which flourished for many years in Frederick County.' The Hopewellcongregation was formed in 1734 with the church located 5 miles north ofWinchester on the Opequon River and was probably the first organization of anydenomination in the valley of Virginia. Morgan Bryan obtained several grants ofland in the vicinity of Winchester, which bear the date of 12 November1735."
Letitia (or Letia) STRODE was born on 19 August 1725 in ChesterCounty, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Edward Strode and Eleanor Shepard.
"Letia (Letitia) Strode's ancestry has created lively arguments. Theissue: who was her father? Some descendants have insisted Letia was thedaughter of James Strode, perhaps with the aim of being eligible for membershipin the D.A.R. The preponderance of evidence is that her parents were Edward andElinor. If so, Letia was Capt. James Strode's sister. Elston has persuasivearguments that this is the case. In addition, photocopies of loose papers foundinside the 'Arnold Bible' lists Letia as Edward and Elinor Strode's child born19 August 1725. Records collected by Viola Barr Hughes shows Letia (Letitia)born 30 August 1725. The difference in dates is 'old' style and 'new' style.
"There is agreement that Letia (Letitia) married Jacob Van Meteron 30 August 1741 (in Fredericks County, Virginia) at a young 16 years of age.
The Van Meters, a leading Virginia family, opposed the marriage because ofLetia's Baptist religious beliefs and on moral grounds. The Van Meters felt thefirst born child did not belong to their son, Jacob.
"Jacob and Letia lived in Berkeley County, Virginia until about 1769,then until about 1779-80 near Carmichael, Pennsylvania. They then moved toElizabethtown, Hardin County, Kentucky. The family, except the oldest daughter,Eleanor, had certificates from the Baptist Church 18 September 1779 to leavefor Kentucky."
She died on 25 December 1799 in Hardin County, Kentucky.