Lou Alice Fink of Louisville, KY:Information about Marcomir I de CIMMERIANS
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King of CIMMERIANS Marcomir I de CIMMERIANS (b. 412)Marcomir I de CIMMERIANS (son of Antenor de Cimmerians) was born 412.
Notes for Marcomir I de CIMMERIANS:
Marcomir I King of CIMMERIANS
FatherAntenor King of CIMMERIANS, [Ch.Pr/Ephraim]
Children> 1. Antenor II King of CIMMERIANS, [King/Sicambri]
Ancestry and Progentry of Captain James Blount - Immigrant, by Robert F. Pfafman p E-24.
Brought his poeple out of Scythia, conquered Gual, where they settled.
Kings Length of Reign Dates
1. Antenor: a king over Trojan settlers on the Black Sea, himself of royal Trojan blood. Died in 445
2. Marcomirus I: king of the Sicambri (from the German Cimbri in whose ancient territory they settled). In 441 he brought the people out of Scythia and seated them on the Danube. During a council he was told by a pagan priest to go west where Brutus of Troy had previously gone. A pagan prophecy promises him victory over the Gauls and the Romans. Sends embassy to Saxons and asks for land in which to settle.
In April 439 B.C. they leave the lower Danube and move overland, first north, then west, to the mouth of the Rhine. A total of 489,360 persons (including 175,658 warriors but not including slaves and servants) take part. Marcomirus had brothers Priam, Panthenor and Sunno. They settled the country now called West Friesland, Gelders and Holland. Marcomirus crossed the Rhine and conquered part of Gaul. One of his brothers was made governor. Then the conquest of all Gaul was gradually completed.
Marcomirus, according to the 'Chronicle of Hunibald', dies 926 years before the death of the first Christian king of the Franks, Clovis, in 511.
444- 416 BCyrs of his reign
The Cimmerians (Greek: ??µµ?????, Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of Azerbaijan in 714 BC.
Their origins are obscure, but they may have been Indo-European or Ural-Altaic, but this theory is not widely aknowledged. Their language is regarded as being related to either Thracian or Iranian. The Thracian theory is based on the fact that the Greek author Strabo ascribes the "Treri" in one passage to the Thracians (13.1.8) and in another to the Cimmerians (14.1.40). The Iranian theory, on the other hand, argues that the material culture of the Cimmerians in Asia Minor is indistinguishable from that of the contemporary Scythians; furthermore, Assyrian Gimirri and Persian Saka are used synonymously in ancient Near eastern sources, most notably on the famous Behistun inscription. Thus many scholars, including the Russian scholar Askold Ivancik, assume they were closely related to the Scythians. At any rate, even if the Cimmerians were Thracians, or belonged to some unknown Indo-European or non-Indo-European branch, they may well have had an Iranian ruling class, as did the Scythians. In the early twentieth century they were associated with the Proto-Indo-Europeans ("Aryans" or "Japhetites").
Very little is known archaeologically of the Cimmerians of the Northern Black Sea Coast. It has been suggested they may have comprised the so-called "Catacomb culture" of southern Russia, which appears to have been ousted by the "Srubna culture" that advanced from farther east. This parallels the Greek account of how the Cimmerians were displaced by the Scythians. However, the ouster of the Catacomb culture is carbon-dated to the 2nd millennium BC, several hundred years before the Scythians are recorded as having appeared in Asia; the conflicting timeframes are difficult to reconcile.
A few stone stelae found in the Ukraine and the northern Caucasus have been connected with the Cimmerians. They are in a style clearly different from both the later Scythian and the earlier Yamna/Kemi-Oba stelae.
The first historical record of the Cimmerians appears in Assyrian annals in the year 714 BC. These describe how a people termed the Gimirri helped the forces of Sargon II to defeat the kingdom of Urartu. Their original homeland, called Gamir or Uishdish, seems to have been located within the buffer state of Mannae. The later geographer Ptolemy placed the Cimmerian city of Gomara in this region.
Some modern authors assert that the Cimmerians included mercenaries, whom the Assyrians knew as Khumri, who had been resettled there by Sargon. However, later Greek accounts describe the Cimmerians as having previously lived on the steppes, between the Tyras (Dniester) and Tanais (Don) rivers. They are described in Book 11 of Homer's Odyssey as living in a land of fog and darkness at the edge of the world, on the shores of Oceanus. Several kings of the Cimmerians are mentioned in Greek and Mesopotamian sources, including Tugdamme (Lygdamis in Greek; mid-7th century BC), and Sandakhshatra (late-7th century).
According to the Histories of Herodotus (c. 440 BC), the Cimmerians had been expelled from the steppes at some point in the past by the Scythians. To ensure burial in their ancestral homeland, the men of the Cimmerian royal family divided into groups and fought each other to the death. The Cimmerian commoners buried the bodies along the river Tyras and fled from the Scythian advance, across the Caucasus and into Anatolia and the Near East. Their range seems to have extended from Mannae eastward through the Mede settlements of the Zagros Mountains, and south of there as far as Elam.
The migrations of the Cimmerians were recorded by the Assyrians, whose king, Sargon II, died in battle against them in 705 BC. They are subsequently recorded as having conquered Phrygia in 696 BC-695 BC, prompting the Phrygian king Midas to take poison rather than face capture. In 679 BC, during the reign of Esarhaddon of Assyria, they attacked Cilicia and Tabal under their new ruler Teushpa. Esarhaddon defeated them near Hubushna (tentatively identified with modern Cappadocia).
In 654 BC or 652 BC – the exact date is unclear – the Cimmerians attacked the kingdom of Lydia, killing the Lydian king Gyges and causing great destruction to the Lydian capital, Sardis. They returned ten years later during the reign of Gyges' son Ardys II and this time captured the city, with the exception of the citadel. The fall of Sardis was a major shock to the powers of the region; the Greek poets Callinus and Archilochus recorded the fear that it inspired in the Greek colonies of Ionia, some of which were attacked by Cimmerian and Treres raiders.
The Cimmerian occupation of Lydia was brief, however -- possibly due to an outbreak of plague. Between 637 BC and 626 BC they were beaten back by Alyattes II of Lydia. This defeat marked the effective end of Cimmerian power. The term "Gimirri" was used about a century later in the Behistun inscription (ca. 515 BC) as a Babylonian equivalent of Persian Saka (Scythians), but otherwise Cimmerians are not heard of again in Asia, and their ultimate fate is uncertain. It has been speculated that they settled in Cappadocia, known in Armenian as Gamir (the same name as the original Cimmerian homeland in Mannae). However, certain Frankish traditions would locate them at the mouth of the Danube (see Sicambri).
A reference to the Cimmerians is preserved in Gomer ??? of the Hebrew Bible (Standard Hebrew Gómer, Tiberian Hebrew Gomer, Genesis 10:2, Ezekiel 38:6). As the eldest son of Japheth and the father of Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah, his descendants thus represent one of the major branches of the Japhethic race.
721-715 BC – Sargon II mentions a land of Gamirr near to Urartu.
714 – suicide of Rusa I of Urartu, after defeat by both the Assyrians and Cimmerians.
705 – Sargon II of Assyria dies on an expedition against the Kulummu.
679/678 – Gimirri under a ruler called Teushpa invade Assyria from Hubuschna (Cappadocia?). Esarhaddon of Assyria defeats them in battle.
676-674 – Cimmerians invade and destroy Phrygia, and reach Paphlagonia.
654 or 652 – Gyges of Lydia dies in battle against the Cimmerians. Sack of Sardis; Cimmerians and Treres plunder Ionian colonies.
644 – Cimmerians occupy Sardis, but withdraw soon afterwards
637-626 – Cimmerians defeated by Alyattes II.
ca. 515 – Last historical record of Cimmerians, in the Behistun inscription of Darius.
Of the language of the Cimmerians, only a few personal names have survived in Assyrian inscriptions:
Te-ush-pa, mentioned in the annals of Esarhaddon, has been compared to the Hurrian war deity Teshub; others interpret it as Iranian, comparing the Achaemenid name Teispes (Herodotus 7.11.2)
Dug-dam-me (Dugdammê) king of the Ummân-Manda (nomads) appears in a prayer of Ashurbanipal to Marduk, on a fragment at the British Museum. Other spellings include Dugdammi, and Tugdammê. Yamauchi (1982) interprets the name as Iranian, citing Ossetic "tux-domaeg" meaning "ruling with strength." The name appears corrupted to Lygdamis in Strabo I.3.21.
Sandaksatru, son of Dugdamme. This is an Iranian reading of the name, and Mayrhofer (1981) points out that the name may also be read as Sandakurru. Mayrhofer likewise rejects the interpretation of "with pure regency" as a mixing of Iranian and Indo-Aryan. Ivancik suggests an association with the Anatolian deity Sanda.
Some researchers have attempted to trace various place names to Cimmerian origins. It has been suggested that Crimea is named after the Cimmerians as well as the Armenian city of Gyumri. This, however, seems to be a dubious premise. The name "Crimea" is traceable to the Crimean Tatar word qirim (literally "my steppe" of "my hill"), and the peninsula was known as Taurica ("peninsula of the Tauri") in antiquity (Strabo 7.4.1; Herodotus 4.99.3, Amm. Marc. 22.8.32).
The Cimmerians are now often classified as an Iranian people, but based on ancient Greek historical sources, a Thracian or (less commonly) a Celtic association is sometimes assumed. According to C. F. Lehmann-Haupt, the language of the Cimmerians could have been a "missing link" between Thracian and Iranian.
The Cimmerians are thought to have had a number of offshoots. The Thracians have been identified as a possible western branch of the Cimmerians. If Herodotus is to be believed, both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced around the same time by invaders from further east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading east and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated west and south into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture. The Tauri, the original inhabitants of Crimea, are sometimes identified as a people related to the Thracians.
Although the Cimmerians of historical record only appear on the stage of world history for a brief time (during the 7th century BC), numerous Celtic and Germanic peoples have traditions of being descended from the Cimmerians or Scythians, and some of their ethnic names seem to bear out this belief (e.g. Cymru, Cwmry or Cumbria, Cimbri). It is unlikely that either Proto-Celtic or Proto-Germanic entered Europe as late as the 7th century BC, their formation being commonly associated with the Bronze Age Urnfield and Nordic Bronze Age cultures, respectively. It is, however, conceivable that a small-scale (in terms of population) 8th century "Thraco-Cimmerian" migration triggered cultural changes that contributed to the transformation of the Urnfield culture into the Hallstatt C culture, ushering in the European Iron Age.
The etymology of Cymru (i.e. Wales) and Cwmry (i.e. Cumbria), said in Welsh tradition to derive directly from the "Cimmerians", is instead considered by detractors of this theory as being Celtic kom-broges meaning "fellow countrymen". As for the Cimbri tribe, it is not known for certain whether they were Celtic, Germanic, or even, as a third alternative, from an earlier Western Indo-European grouping connected with the Ligurians. In addition, the Merovingian kings of the Franks traditionally traced their lineage, through a pre-Frankish tribe called the Sicambri, to a group of "Cimmerians" who lived near the mouth of the Danube river.
If the Scythians are assumed to be related to the Cimmerians, as has often been claimed, many other peoples claiming possible Scythian descent could also be added to this list.
The association of the Cimmerians with one of the Lost Tribes of Israel plays a certain role in British Israelism.
The CIMMERIANS A proto-Iranian group which held the steppes of the Ukraine and southern Russia for quite a long while. They are best known today for their large and treasure-heavy burial mounds, called Kurgans. They, or rather their name, have also found a place in modern fantasy literature; Robert E. Howard adopted the name as the home tribe of his fictional hero, Conan the Barbarian. In the 8th century BCE, they came under increasing pressure from the Scythians, and in response migrated around the Black Sea to lay waste to large portions of Thrace and Anatolia. They were eventually disrupted by Lydia, but pockets of their language and culture persisted until the 5th century BCE. They are poorly documented and, in fact, the selection of names below has been Hellenized to a considerable degree.
Gomer (eponymous ancestor-king).................fl. c. 2300 BCE
(Priam I of Troy)
Genger..........................................fl. c. 1150
In Classical and subsequent Mediaeval genealogies, Genger was regarded as a son of the Trojan Prince Helenos (himself a son of Priam), by Andromache, widow of Hector. This may regarded with tolerance as a species of creative genealogy invented by early historiographers with an interest in tracing all known tribes and nations back to a familiarly Aegean source.
Antenor.........................................fl. c. 800
Following "Antenor", the Cimmerians began migrating out of their ancient Ukrainian homeland, around the Black Sea, and into Anatolia...
Teushapa (Teuspa)............................fl. 680's-670's
Getmalor........................................fl. c. 677
Lygdamis (Tugdamme in Assyrian records)........fl. mid 600's
Sandakhshatra.................................fl. late 600's
Note another example of invented genealogies, connecting the Cimmerians with the Sicambrian Franks of the Lower Rhine. In this version, the last Cimmerian rulers appear thusly:
Helenos IV......................................fl. c. 490
Antenor II (King of the Cimmerians of Scythia)......d. 443 BCE
It must needs be emphasized that by the 5th century BCE, the Ukraine was entirely in the hands of the Scythians, a different people from the Cimmerians, whom they replaced in this region in the 9th century BCE. Nevertheless, see the Sicambri (Franks) thereafter...