NormanHerring - Treatise on the contention that Oliphants came
downfrom Scotland in 1100 and not up from Normandy in 1066
Setting the question
The Oliphant entry in Crawfurd's 1716Peerage of Scotland, page 376 (who cites Dalrymple's Collections, page 174)begins: “The ancestors of this ancientfamily David de Olifard was one of those barons who accompanied King David I toEngland, with an army to the assistance of Maud the Empress, his niece, againstKing Stephen, of whom ‘tis memorable that after the raising of the siege ofWinchester, in the 1142, King David was so closely pursu’d that he was in avery great hazard of being made a prisoner, had it not been for the singularvalour of this noble person who had the honour to rescue and bring off the Kinghis sovereign to his immortal honour.”
Qu.1: Why did David O. throw over all his lands tosave the opposition King ?
The explanation of the answer for this fallsinto two parts:
Misinterpretation of facts
Thomas Kington-Oliphant wrote twobooks: Jacobite Lairds of Gask for thepurpose of discussing the 17th century links with Royal Stuarts and Oliphantsin Scotland as a vehicle for putting in print much of the Gask Charter Chest,which incorporated that of the Lords Oliphant. These books begin by referring to the Oliphants as Norman, which canonly be founded upon the logic that a senior landholder under the feudal systemmerely 30 years after the Norman Conquest was likely to have been a party tothe invasion.
W. Maitland Thompson's 1886 The ScotsPeerage, page 521 recognises the point that there is no mention of any Olifardsin the contemporary records of the invasion but leaves his own conclusion on itopen. It begins: “The Norman origin of the Oliphant family isattested by tradition, as preserved in Scalacronica (page 19, Maitland Clubedition) and the roll of Battle Abbey; is corroborated by the connections inwhich the name occurs in earliest times; and has been generally accepted bygenealogists (see J.H. Round’s: Feudal England, page 223.) "Kington-Oliphant's 1879"Oliphants in Scotland" also quotes the traditionary list of Normanknights who fought at Hastings from Scalacronica, which lists "Oyssel etOliffard, Maulouel et Maureward."
The Complete Peerage refers to J.H.R.stating on page 48: "In an articleon the Northamptonshire Survey, which he dates Henry I to Henry II, J.H. Round(Feudal England, page 223-4) observes: "Such an entry as "InLilleford, Willemus Olyfart v. hidas de feudo Regis Scotiae" is peculiarlysuggestive. It reminds us that DavidHolyfard, godson of King David of Scotland, and his protector in 1141, was thefounder of the house of Oliphant."
Under closer scrutiny, the facts belie thisconclusion:
1. the Battle Abbey Roll was drawn up some100 years after the event, in 1166, by Duchess of Cleveland (i. p. xxiv.), at atime when David Oliphant was already back in Scotland and this series of otherOliphants had become spread around England (vide The Surnames of Scotland, page637: .."The family continued to hold land in Northamptonshire long afterthe principal branch had removed to Scotland.") Additionally, it was compiled two decades after the Battle ofWinchester (1141) at which David Olifard had saved the life of King David ofScotland. By so doing he would haveinevitably attracted the attention of English historians to the Olifardname. They would have known that thename was not Anglo-Saxon and took it that this 'new comer’ was descended fromNorman stock. The traditionary list ofNorman knights who fought at Hastings in the Battle Abbey Roll is notcontemporaneous and thus can not be taken to be a definitive source for such asurmise, in the face of there being no mention of any Olifards in thecontemporary records of the invasion.
Thus it comes as no surprise that,in John Murray's 1889 version, there is a lengthy introduction of which thefollowing is part: "The famousroll of Battle Abbey is believed to have been compiled in obedience to a clausein the Conqueror's foundation charter, that enjoined the monks to pray for thesouls of those “who by their labour and valour had helped to win the kingdom”.The great Sussex abbey that was 'the token and pledge of the Royal Crown,' hadbeen intended to be not only a memorial of his victory, but a chantry for theslain; and the names of his companions‑in-arms enshrined on this bede‑roll,might thus be read out in church on special occasions....It was most likelyoriginally copied from the muster‑roll of the Norman knights, that hadbeen prepared by the Duke's orders before his embarkation, and was called overin his presence on the field of battle, the morning after it had been fought.The list, thus composed, was inscribed on a roll of parchment, and hung up inthe Abbey Minster .... As time went on it became more and more an object ofambition to own an ancestor that had come over with the Conqueror: and themonks were always found willing to oblige a liberal patron by inserting hisname .... thus its value as an authority is irretrievably lost; and thoughthe earlier genealogists and county historians often quote and refer to it, ithas latterly been altogether discredited and condemned .... It is as leastcertain that it does not exist now: nor is it precisely known what hasbecome of it .... Nothing, at all events, now remains to us but copies of thiscelebrated record. Of these there are three; one published by Leland in his"Collectanea, which was the first that ever appeared: another inHolinshed's Chronicle, dated 1577: and a third printed a few years later byStowe and afterwards copied by Duchesne." The Duchess of Cleveland gives 4 versions altogether and the name“Olifard” or “Olifaunt” only appears on two.;
2. Similarly, the Pipe Rolls of Henry Iquoted were written in 1130 and 1131 and The Scalacronica was written by SirThomas Gray in 1355, nearly three hundred years after the Norman Conquest. Both carry in consequence even less weight
3. The nub of the argument is that theoriginal Doomesday Book made no mention of an Oliphant and, even when updatedin 1086, it referred to the incumbent of what are known by 1124 to be DavidOliphant's father's lands at Lilford, by first name only. (Vide E. Maxton Graham : ...."but nothing is known is reallyknown beyond the fact that about the year 1124 an Olifard was in possession ofLilford, that he had three young sons, William, David, amd Thomas, and that toone of these sons the Scottish King, who had that year succeeded to the crown,stood godfather."
4. W. Maitland Thompson's, research unearthedno record of the name in Normandy prior to nor after 1066: He goes on: "The non-appearance of the surname in Normandy (it does not occurin J.H. Round’s: Cal. Of Documents, France) indicates it was first assumed onEnglish soil."
5. The Complete Peerage refers to J.H.R.stating on page 48: "In an articleon the Northamptonshire Survey, which he dates Henry I to Henry II, J.H. Round(Feudal England, page 223-4) observes: "Such an entry as "In Lilleford,Willemus Olyfart v. hidas de feudo Regis Scotiae" is peculiarlysuggestive. It reminds us that DavidHolyfard, godson of King David of Scotland, and his protector in 1141, was thefounder of the house of Oliphant."
6. However, it then goes on to say:..."and in the family's possession of Lilford (which was held of theCountess Judith in 1086) we see the origin of their Scottish connexion. William "Olyfard" was ofNorthamptonshire, and Hugh "Olifard" of Huntingdonshire in 1130 (Rot.Pip., 31 Hen. I); while Hugh "Olifart" (of Stoke) was a knight of theAbbot of Peterborough in rather earlier days. The earliest member of the house, however, it would seem, on record isRoger Olifard, who witnessed (doubtless as his tenant) Earl Simon's charter toSt. Andrew's, Northampton, granted, probably, not later than 1108."
7. E. Maxton Graham: page 3similarly observes: "The first record of an Oliphant is as a witness toEarl Simon's foundation of the Cluniac Priory of St. Andrew, Northampton,between 1093 and 1100. However, the latitudeof this date does therefore not preclude Roger Oliphant's presence there beingonly as a result of his association with King David.
8. Beryl Platts' 1985Scottish Hazard confirms “The manor of Lilford, Northamptonshire, is on theriver Nene. It was held at Domesday by the Countess Judith, and her under‑tenantthere was her nephew, Walter the Fleming, of Wahull (now Odell).” She continues …”The first Holyford, Olifardor Oliphant of Lilford of whom we have note (according to the Victoria CountyHistory for Northampton, Vol. iii, p. 227) was Roger, who witnessed a charterto St. Andrew's Priory, Northampton, for Simon de Senlis, first husband ofScotland's Queen Maud. The date is not known, but it was probably about 1107.(Note: This is wrong as Maud, then a widow, was in fact married to David in1100, indicating that the witnessing was for David and/or Maud, rather thanRoger de Senlis.] Roger's successor atLilford was William, and the David Oliphant born there about 1120....was almostcertainly William's son." [N.B. Platt makes the link ofOlifards with Flemish stock on the basis of the three crescents in the arms butMaud (in whom the link was direct) could equally as logically have conferredsuch honour on David Olifard under feudal patronage for saving her husband.
Ans.1a: The family was evidently not from Normandy[and, for his father to hold land so soon after the Conquest it could not havebeen from Harold's England either.]
Pointers to an alternative conclusion
The Victorian writers all recite detailswhich point, albeit unwittingly, to an alternative conclusion:
E. Maxton Graham: page 1 (et al): William ofMalmesbury describes King David as "coming to England to get the Scottishrust rubbed off".
King David was born in 1088 and Mackie's1910 "Dumferline=born Princes & Princesses" says of David I:"He had other training for kingly service besides his supervision of theprovince of Cumbria. He was evidently afavourite brother of his sister Matilda, who had married Henry I., and havingwon the confidence and affection of Beauclerc, the fine scholar, he spent aconsiderable part of his early manhood at the English Court. There he married Matilda, the daughter andheiress of Waldeof, Earl of Huntingdon and Judith, who was niece of the firstKing William [the Conqueror], and through her became Earl ofHuntingdon."
Thomas Kington-Oliphant describes KingDavid's marrying Matilda as widow of a Simon de Senlis (or, St. Liz) in 1100,by when he would have been 20.
Basisfor the conclusion that the Olifards had come from Scotland with David I.
1. Both their presence in Scotland andtheir link with the royal family of Scotland are supported by the fact that anOlifard was recorded as having been in the Mearns in the year 1012 inGlenbervie (vide Jervise hereunder.) That Olifard presence in Scotland can not be explained by the Normaninvasion 54 years later some 500 miles to the South.
2. The baronial lands of Kincardine, wherethe royal palace of Kincardine was ultimately built, were close by toGlenbervie and held by the Kings of Scotland. In 'Memorials of Angus and the Mearns' Jervise (p.93) observes:-……Hew Hassa, a German by birth, came tothis country and married Germuda Dervise, the heiress of Glenbervy, the last ofwhose descendants fell at the battle of Barrie in 1012, while attempting toexpel the Danes from Scotland. Helen,the last of the Hassas, Married Duncan Oliphart, a captain or soldier of theMearns (Mernie Decurio), and fromMargaret, his great-grand-daughter, sprung the present family ofArbuthnot. Walter Oliphart, the son ofHelen Hassa, had by Matilda, daughter of Sinel, thane of Angus, an only soncalled Osbert, who fell in the Holy Wars with Godfrey of Boulogne, whose onlydaughter married James Melville, an Hungarian noble, and his son Hew marriedGernarda, daughter of Macpender, thane of the Mearns, who murdered Duncan II,in 1095.
The Olifards it seems owned at leastthree tracts of land in the area:-
i. Glenbervie, which passed to theMelvilles through a daughter (with whom the Oliphant tartan was"lumped" by authorities on tartan but only after Vestiarum Scotiumand, whose chiefs to this day have a quartering of the Oliphant arms intheirs.)
ii. Arbuthnot, which went in tocher formarriage to Hugh de Swinton, progenitor of the Arbuthnots.
iii. Part of the baronial lands ofKincardine. It is not known when theOlifards first acquired the lands in the barony of Kincardine, although it ispossible that they owned them before inheriting other lands from Helen Hassa,since Duncan Oliphart was in the county already. Also it is not known whether the lands of Arbuthnot came into theOlifard family through Helen Hassa or not.
3. The 'Oliphants In Scotland' ties up therelationship between David Olifard, Osbert Olifard and Walter Olifard, therebyfurther substantiating that David came from the stock of the hereditarysherrifs of the Mearns and not from Normandy:
Page iv - last paragragh andcorresponding foot note ..."Fortunately we are left in no doubt as to hisson and heir, since Walter Olifard is so styled in a charter"....
Page v ..."Isaac de Banevin,also testified that in the time of Hugo, Bishop of St. Andrews (1178 -1188).....that Osbert gave him the lands that he had received from the king,and these lands he held for six years, partly in the time of Osbert, and partlyin the time of Walter Olifard who succeeded him"...;
It is possible that there were twoWalters at this time, but as the author goes on: "Osbert Olifard neverreturned from the crusade, but was succeeded within a few years by his nephewWalter."
Thus Osbert and David were brothers.Walter had sons of his own, and yet the lands all passed through the femaleline and the hereditary sherriffdom died with Osbert, suggesting that Walter'sposition was purely that of caretaker until Osbert's daughter married.
We know that David Olifard was closeto the King and it is too great a co-incidence that an altogether differentline of Olifards might have been close to David I's followers, however the lastlines of the same page clearly state that Osbert recognised an oldacquaintance. It is most probable that he was David Olifard's brother.
4. Later, Sir William Oliphant, himself adescendant of David Olifard who was at the Battle of Winchester owned land inthe barony of Kincardine. This wasprior to the royal link by marriage of William's son Walter to Elizabeth,daughter of Robert the Bruce. (It isprobably more than coincidence that Sir William's son, like that of DuncanOliphart and Helen Hassa was named Walter.) Jervise cites (p.85): "Thefirst mention of any portion of the barony of Kincardine belonging to asubject, occurs in the time of The Bruce, when Sir William Oliphant hadconfirmation charters of the lands of Morehouse in Edinburghshire, in exchangefor the "clausura parci de Kyncardin in le Mernis." In other words The Bruce was exchanginglands owned historically by the Oliphants which he wanted in return for landsnear Edinburgh.
5. However, it is left to George Kinnearin Glenbervie the Fatherland of Burns to put the seal on it with the evidencefrom Glenbervie tombstones. Chapter IIIpage 11 begins:
At the time of the visit of KingEdward 1. the Castle of GIenbervie belonged to a branch of the old family ofMelville. Many barons of that name did homage to Edward, and among these was" Johannes de Maleuill miles," who probably was “John De Malevill,Chevalier, the laird of Glenbervie." His submission took place atLumphanan in Aberdeenshire on the 21st of July, 1296; and at the same time andplace “John of Stowe," parson of the Kirk of Glenbervie, also submitted.
In the burial vault of theGlenbervie family, standing in Glenbervie Kirkyard, and which formed thechancel end of the old kirk, there are two interesting monuments. Theinscription on one of these records the brave deeds and matrimonial alliancesof the lairds of Glenbervie from 730 A.D., and also describes their connectionwith the Douglas family. The monument,. which seems to have been renewed, bearsthe date 1680. It contains, in addition to a long list of the lairds and ladiesof Glenbervie, some curious mortuary emblems, and also the armorial bearings ofthe family of Hassa, Olifart, Melville, Affleck, and Douglas. The inscriptionis remarkable in that it perpetuates the name. of “Bell‑the‑Cat, " given to the fifth Earl ofAngus. It gives us at least a traditional view of the family history, which inits later details is not erroneous.
The inscription is in contractedLatin and is as follows:-
“Hic jacent, in spe bonaeresurrectionis, Glenbervii Comarchi, infra designati, et secundum cognominasingulis classibus divisi, ab anno 730"‑ “Hugo Hassa, Germanus,illinc hue perigrinatus ubi, praeclaris meritis postquam insignis apparuisset,Germunda Dervies, Glenbervii heretrice nupta, sub hoc primum tumulo cumconjuge, liberisque suis obdormit. Horum posteri continuerent in annum1004." ‑ " Helena, ultima Hassarum soboles." ‑" Duncanus Oliphantes, Mernii Decurio, interfecto Donaldo et WalteroHassaeis, fratribus praedictae Helenae, Clara pugna a campo in Barry expulsandoDanos, Helenae heretrici nuptus, Glenbervio succedit, gignitque heredemWalterum, filiamque Margaretam, cum agris, nunc Arbuthnott designatis. Ortusinde est Robertus, a presente vice comes, secundus de eodem nomineprinceps." – “Walterus duxit uxorem Matildem Sinelli angusiae thanifiliam. Osbertus, horum filius, Aegidiam Hay, Arrollii filiam, militiaestudens, cum Godfredo Bulionio in Syriam perrexit, relicta filia unigenitaheretrice, in proelia occisus. Nupta1057, Jacobo Malvill. Hungaria nobili orto, cui peperit filium Hugonem,matrimonio Gerardi Macpendarii, Mernii thani, filiae datum. Horum postericontinuerunt in annum 1440." ‑ " militi, filio secundoArchibaldi Comitis Angusiae, vulgo Bell‑the‑Cat, Guilelmo Duglasio,a Bredwood, Jacobum patrem heretricis a Glenbesvy, nuptae, Elizabeta Malvil,nupta Johanni Afflect, de codem peperit."
The translation of the above is ‑"Here lie in the hope of a happy resurrection, the lairds of Glenberviementioned below, and classified according to their surnames from the year 730.Hugh Hassa, a native of Germany, who settled in this country, where his eminentmerits raised him to distinction, married Germunda Dervies, heiress ofGlenbervie, and was the first that slept in this tomb, where his wife andchildren repose by his side." Their posterity continued until 1004."Helena was the last of the Hassa family.” “Duncan Oliphant, sheriff of the Mearns (Donald and Walter Hassa,the brothers of the foresaid Helen, having been killed in a famous battlefought in a plain at Barry, against a host of Danish invaders) having marriedHelen, the heiress of Glenbervie, succeeded to the property, and begat Walter,his heir, and a daughter named Margaret, on whom he bestowed the lands nowcalled Arbuthnott. From her was descended Robert, the second Viscount from thepresent, and the first of that name. Walter married Matilda Senelli, daughterof the Thane of Angus. Their son, Osbert, married Aegidia Hay, daughter ofErrol and being an ardent soldier, went with Godfrey of Bologna to Syria, wherehe was killed in battle, leaving as his heiress an only daughter who in 1057married James Melvil, a Hungarian noble, to whom she bore Hugo, who marriedGeruarda, daughter of Macpender, Thane of the Mearns. Their posterity continuedto the‑year 1440." ‑ " Elizabeth Melvil, having marriedJohn Affleck of that ilk, bore to him James, father of the heiress ofGlenbervie, who married Sir Williain Douglas of Bredwood, second son ofArchibald, Earl of Angus, commonly called Bell‑the‑Cat."
Ans.1b: David Olifard's family was too powerful apresence in Northamptonshire (he, a godson to King David,) to have been anadopted feudal henchman of the King's and the connection is close enough topoint to longer and earlier association. Socio-Political logic explains why no Oliphants appeared inEngland any earlier than David's own there in 1100 in that, the feudal systemof the time would have almost certainly have necessitated that King David installhis own loyal subjects, brought down from Scotland, to safeguard his interestsduring his absences in his own kingdom.
Douglas' 1813 Peerage of Scotland refers toCaledonia, I. 515 and cites Dalr. Ann.I. 96 as David having begun the battle inStephen's army and Maxton Graham's 1910 Oliphants of Gask quotes John ofHexham's chronicle: ...."The King of Scotland having lost all his menbarely escaped, and made a precipitous retreat to his own kingdom; for acertain godson of his, David Holifard, a comrade of those who beseiged the cityof Winchester, secreted him, so that those who were in eager search of the Kingdid not discover him."
Qu.2: Why then was David O. on the side of thosebesieging the city ?
Mackie (page 36) gives the fullest pointerto an explanation: "When thefriend of his youth and early manhood, Henry I. of England, and his lovedsister Matilda lost their son, the Prince William, who was drowned whencrossing the English Channel, the able and powerful English Sovereign made hisnobles pledge themselves to accept his daughter Matilda as Queen after hisdeath. As the Earl of Huntingdon, andtherefore an English nobleman as well as King of Scotland, David took theoath. Some time after the death oftheir royal master, the English nobles set aside Matilda and made Stephen, hercousin and her father's nephew, King. David, in devotion to his niece and in fidelity to his oath felt boundto interfere, and at the head of a large army he marched into England." David lost the Battle of the Standard, but(J.B.M. continues): "David continued as opportunity afforded to assist thecause of his niece, and when during a brief revival of her good fortune sheentered London as Queen, he joined her there. When the tide turned against her, he narrowly escaped capture during theflight to Winchester. A Scotsman, DavidOliphant, who was in the service of Stephen, recognised his Scottish master,and showed his patriotic fidelity by giving him a disguise and assisting himback to Scotland."
As uncle-in-law by marriage, David latersettled his differences with Stephen and Mackie continues: "As the result of successivenegotiations Cumbria was left with King David, and his son, Henry, was assignedthe Earldom of Northumberland, doing homage only for the Earldom ofHuntingdon."
Ans.2: David's family was resident at Northamptonand King David up North revolutionising Scotland (vide Mackie.) When the mostpowerful nobles had elected to replace Matilda with Stephen despite their oathtaken to Henry I to accept Matilda, David Olifard's family would have had tocomply or be ousted. Since Stephen wasa nephew of King Henry I, it may not have been such a bitter pill toswallow. However, once he had seen thathis godfather had set himself to oppose this restatement of affairs, he wasobliged to save him and return to Scotland with him.
Analternative origin of Olifards
It is not disputed that the name Olifarddeveloped at the time of the crusades to imbue it with the strength and powerof the Olifaunt (the pachydermous animal immortalised in the poem The Horn ofRoland, where the horn was called Olifant and was made from elephant ivory)encountered in Palestine which was also taken into the Oliphant arms.
Maitland Thompson says (page 521) "Theoriginal form is Olifard, Latinised Olifardus" and then notes ...."itappears thus in the Pipe Roll of1130, page 85 of print. The fewoccurrences of the name with the prefix deare explicable as clerical errors." i.e., given that the name did not appear in Normandy.
Qu.3: Whence then did the name derive ?
The former name of Olifard is most closelylinked orthographically with the Scandinavian name of Olaf, which reflects thata Scandinavian nobleman named Olifard was shipwrecked on the Kincardine coastin the 5th Century who was important enough for a it to be on record that aboat was sent out to find him (source: .)
As stated, WMT further reflects that thesurname was not used in Normandy and surmises that it was first used on Englishsoil. Although Normandy is so named forthe earlier conquest by Norsemen and Olaf could conceiveably have come thence,it is unlikely that, hundreds of years later, it would be resurrected as asurname at the time of the Norman invasion. JMT also suggests that it could have derived from the first name of a Normanfamily founder. However, since italready was used in Scotland at this time, it is more logical that the name hadsimply been continuously alive North of the border and had come down thence.
FurtherResearch: Vide pedigrees of barons wantingto marry, now in combined Papal records
a. The Peerage of Scotland - 1716 by George Crawfurd, Esq,printed for the author: sold by George Stewart, at the Book and Angel in theParliament Close ......recites that David O went to England with David I...
b. Caledonia - 1807 to 1824 by George Chalmers (I. 515)
c. The Peerage of Scotland - 1813 by Sir George Douglas ofGlenbervie, printed by George Ramsay and Company for Archibald Constable andCompany, Edinburgh : Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; White, Cochrane,and Co.: John Murray; and Richard Rees, London .....recites that David wasgodson to David I ab initio....
d. The Baronage of Angus and Mearns - 1855 by David MacGregorPeter
e. Memorials of Angus and the Mearns - 1861 by Andrew Jervisepub. Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh
f. Jacobite Lairds of Gask - 1870 by T.L.Kington-Blair-Oliphant published for the Grampian Club by Charles Griffin &Co, Stationer's Hall Court, London
g. The Oliphants in Scotland - 1879 printed for T.L. Oliphantof Gask by Robert Anderson, Glasgow ......gives a large selection of the Gaskcharters now in the National Library of Scotland.......
h. Feudal England - 1895 by J.H. Round (3rd pub. bySonnenschein & Co Ltd, 25 High St, Bloomsbury, London 1909)
i. Oliphants of Gask - 1910 by E. Maxtone Graham published inLondon by James Nisbet & Co, 22 Berners Street and printed at EdinburghPress, 9 and 11 Young Street
j. Dumferline=born Princes & Princesses - 1910 by J.B. Mackie,F.J.I. published by Dumfermline : Journal Printing Works
k. Glenbervie the Fatherland of Burns - 1910 by George Kinnearpub. John Menzies & Co, Edinburgh and Glasgow
l. The Lands of the Scottish Kings in England - 1915 byMargaret Moore M.A. pub. George Allen & Unwin, Ruskin House, Museum Street,London WC
m. The Scots Peerage - 1886 by W. Maitland Thomson (copy)
n. The Complete Peerage (copy)
o. Victoria County History forNorthampton, Vol. iii, p. 227 (copy)
p. The Surnames of Scotland - 1946 by George F. Black (copy)
q. Scottish Hazard - 1985 by Beryl Platts [ISBN 0 906650 01 X]
1. Earl Simon's charter to St. Andrew's, Nothampton, granted,probably, not later than 1108.
2. Rot. Pip., 31 Hen. I - also Pipe Roll of 1130
3. Battle Abbey Roll - c. 1166 by Duchess of Cleveland
4. The Scalacronica - 1355 by Sir Thomas Gray (Maitland Clubedition)
5. John of Hexham's chronicle
6. William of Malmesbury - 1870 edited from autographedmanuscript by N.E.S.A. Hamilton published by Longman, London
7. Dalrymple's Collections
8. J.H. Round: Cal. Of Documents, France