Our Families Footprints in the Sands of Time:Information about Chief Doublehead
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Chief Doublehead (b. 1744, d. August 09, 1807)Chief Doublehead (son of Chief Great Eagle) was born 1744 in Sterns Kentucky, and died August 09, 1807 in Hiwassee, Monroe County, Tennessee.He married Creat Priber, daughter of Christian Priber and Clogittiyeah.
Notes for Chief Doublehead:
The murder of Chief Doublehead
August 9, 1807 - Cherokee Chief Doublehead is executed by The Major Ridge, James Vann and Alexander Saunders
It marked the end of an era in the Cherokee Nation and the rise of the republic.
Doublehead had grown powerful by giving Cherokee land to the government through the liberal bribes of Indian Agent Return J. Miegs. The tribal council had made it a crime punishable by death to cede Cherokee land to anyone. Doublehead continued to allow settlers into Cherokee land, and traded holdings with the United States.
Ridge, Vann and Sauders, possibly with the approval of the Cherokee Council, sought Doublehead. The first attempt to kill Doublehead ended when Vann, who was to perform the task, was too drunk. Other attempts followed, but finally Ridge succeeded.
Ironically, Ridge would receive the same punishment for signing the Treaty of New Echota in 1835
The son of a Scottish trader and his Cherokee wife, Vann's father Joseph and step-father Clement were among the first white traders in the Cherokee Nation. Vann's early recognition came because he was one of the few Cherokee who could read English. As a teenager he was called to read letters to the tribe from Tennessee Governor John Sevier and others.
When poor relations with Sevier's settlers deteriorated in the early 1790's, Vann joined the Lower Towns Cherokee in a planned raid on Knoxville, Tennessee. During a raid on Cavett's Station, the Cavett family surrendered to Bob Benge, who promised safe transport for all remaining family members. A chief named Doublehead was not consulted for the negotiations. Angry at Benge, Doublehead and his friends attacked Cavett's Station. Benge, John Watts (who was leading the raid) and Vann tried to protect the family to no avail. Doublehead killed a young white boy Vann had hoisted to his saddle to protect, then turned and tried to attack Vann. Vann avoided the blow by turning his horse. To the Cherokee the title "Mankiller" is a term of great respect. From that day forward, whenever angered, Vann called Doublehead "Baby-killer." Vann would never forgive nor forget the treachery.
Vann was instrumental in selecting a warrior, Ridge, to represent the village of Pine Log in council. Ridge was present three years earlier when James Vann stood up to Doublehead at Cavett's Station. A third man, Charles Hicks, lived in the town and together the three quickly became good friends. Over the next fifteen years this Cherokee Triumvirate would steer a young Nation on a path towards acculturation. Vann was becoming a wealthy farmer, slaveholder, and respected negotiator for the Cherokee Nation.
In 1800, while on an East Coast trip that included a visit to Washington, D.C., Vann met a group of Morovian missionaries from North Carolina who desired to spread the Gospel and teach Cherokee children. Vann convinced them to move to Spring Place, south of the soon-to-be-built Vann House, to start their mission and school. He presented his idea to the tribal council, in part so his two-year old son Joseph might attend. That autumn Doublehead tried to delay the council from making a decision about allowing the school. Vann and Hicks drew Doublehead aside and informed him that whether or not he wanted it, the Morovians would have a school. Many of the mixed-blood Cherokee supported Vann. Doublehead let the council vote and the vote was in favor of the Morovians. He took the opportunity to tell Vann to stop criticizing him.
The tribal council had begun to factionalize. Ridge, Hicks and Vann would stand opposed to Doublehead on almost every issue, and Doublehead became jealous as the wealth of the Triumvirate grew. With his skillful handling of the Federal Highway negotiations in 1803, Vann ended up with a tavern, store, ferry and an additional estate on the Chattahoochee, and the highway would run directly past both his new home and the Morovian school at Spring Place. Hicks and Ridge also owned multiple businesses and were gaining in wealth, yet Doublehead was clearly ahead of all three.
The Triumvirate realized that white traders and government agents were willing to do business with Doublehead because he was willing to accept bribes. Benefiting from Hicks' association with Indian Agent Return J. Meigs, for whom Hicks translated papers, Vann learned that on at least three occasions Doublehead had illegally sold Cherokee land to whites, a crime punishable by death. At first, few people would listen to Vann as he exposed Doublehead's activities, but slowly he convinced a majority of the Nation that Doublehead was indeed committing crimes.
Vann, Ridge and Alexander Sauders were selected to kill Doublehead for his betrayal, possibly with the approval of the tribal council. At the appointed time Vann was too drunk to commit the murder. It was the first in a series of botched attempts that eventually ended in Doublehead's death at the hand of Vann's friend Ridge. This was one of a complex series of events led by Vann that would become known as "The Revolt of the Young Chiefs.
Cherokee historian Don Shadburn talked to us about Vann's married life. "His wives included three sisters, daughters of Walter Scott, a South Carolina Indian trader-- Elizabeth Scott (mother of Delilah Vann McNair), Polly Scott, and Peggy Scott. Jennie Foster and Nancy Ann Brown (half-sister of the Scott girls) were also wives. Nancy was Joe Vann's mother."
He was known to beat people, including his wives, for little or no reason, and the Cherokee Nation empowered him as head of part of the Lighthorse Patrol, a loose-knit Cherokee police force. By this time Vann's drinking problem was out of control. He became paranoid about theft. When Alexander Saunders tried to talk to Vann about his problems, Vann told him to leave.
James Vann lived by the sword, James Vann died by the sword. Celebrating at Tom Buffington's tavern northwest of Frogtown a single shot rang out from a partially opened door and James Vann fell dead, holding a bottle in one hand, a drink in the other. His Negro slave quickly picked up his son Joseph and Vann's billfold and spirited the boy back to Spring Place. Vann's body was buried near the tavern. Speculation as to who committed the crime is rampant even nearly 200 years after the act. Was it Alexander Saunders, whom Vann had exiled? Or maybe a relative of Doublehead's, getting revenge for his kin's murder? Most likely it was the relative of a man Vann had recently killed.
In death Vann would have a major effect on the matrilineal Cherokee society. The society was structured around Cherokee women, not men. When a man married he became a member of his wife's clan. Property passed through a wife when a warrior died. Vann, in line with white law of the time, left his inheritance to his son Joseph. The tribal council gave some of the inheritance to his wives and other children, but Joseph got the bulk.
When he died at the age of 43 Vann was one of the richest men not only in the Cherokee Nation but in the United States. His beautiful home along the Federal Highway still bears his name, Vann House, and is a popular stop along North Georgia's Chieftains Trail.
a North Georgia Notable
Born 1771, Hiwassee, Cherokee Nation
Died June 22, 1839, White Rock Creek, AR.(disputed)
A man finishes describing his vision to the highest Cherokee council by saying anyone who denies this dream will be struck dead by the Cherokee Mother. Ridge sits silent as a great chatter arises amongst the chiefs. The vision is decidedly anti-settler, possibly provoked by Tecumseh, who issues a call for war shortly before the meeting in May of 1811. Rising to speak after the room had quieted, Ridge's voice fills the hall. "What you have heard is not good. It will lead us to war with the United States, and we shall suffer. It is not a talk from the Great Spirit, and I stand here and call it false. Let the death come upon me. I test their words."
Before he finishes speaking men are upon him, fighting him, trying to stab him with knifes. Cherokees in support of Ridge fight back. As the battle rages, Ridge stands, clothes torn and bloody. The fighting pauses. Louder than before Ridge repeats "I stand here and call it false," adding this time, "I continue to live so these prophets are deceivers." Again fighting breaks out, but this time the elder chiefs stop it.
His words alter the course of the Cherokee Nation. Not for the first time, nor the last, Ridge takes a stand for something in which he believes. It was a trait that would mark him throughout his life as a visionary, and end in his death for the betrayal of his people.
Born Kah-nung-da-tla-geh in 1771, by most people's guess, Man Who Walks on Mountaintop is the son of Oganstota, Dutsi or Tar-chee. His mother, a mixed blood Cherokee, belongs to the Deer Clan. In 1785 the Cherokee leaders sign the Treaty of Hopewell, in which many of the tribe put great faith. By the time Ridge becomes a warrior in 1788, the agreement at Hopewell has been repeatedly broken by both sides and the Chickamauga (Ridge's tribe) are in revolt.
In his first war party, the future member of the Cherokee Triumvirate witnesses the atrocity of war. Cherokee and settlers battle across southeast Tennessee. Near present-day Maryville the Cherokee attack settlers in the field and turn on John Gillespie's station, killing all the men in the stockade. Ridge's leader, John Watts saves the lives of the 28 women and children. They then attack 2 more stations on the Holsten, and head for the Smoky Mountains. John Seiver ambushes the war party. Ridge escapes, wounded, but 145 Cherokee die.
Exposure to this kind of fighting continues for years. By the mid 1790's Ridge, as did many of his fellow Chickamaugan, begin to desire an end to the fighting. "I will hunt deer, not men," he tells his fiancée Susanna. His tribe decimated, two separate events that affect Ridge occur. He moves to Pine Log, in present-day Bartow County, Georgia, and under orders of President Washington, the United States begins to introduce technology to the Cherokee in the form of spinning wheels and cotton combs.
Now married, Ridge is surprised to find when he returns home that Susanna has woven cloth worth more money than all the pelts he captures in six months of hunting. Pleasantly surprised. And the men he begins to associate with in Pine Log are not warriors but farmers. His association with James Vann and Charles Hicks influences Ridge towards ending the fighting with settlers, and Ridge, in turn, influences the Cherokee Nation to ending the constant warring.
By 1795 a change had overcome the warrior. Representing Pine Log in council Ridge proposes a modest change in the ancient vengeance code. This change, which passes, prompts Ridge's rise. He is 25(or so) at the time. By 1800 the tribal council acknowledges the Cherokee Triumvirate of Ridge, Vann and Hicks. They often disagree with the elders and frequently win.
Ridge turns his attention to his family as Vann and Hicks lead the fights in council. Susanna gives birth to a girl, then a boy, John. A third, another boy, dies at birth. Later additions to his family would include Walter or "Watty" and Sarah, who they called Sally. His brother David Watie (or Oowatie) and sister-in-law, living nearby, give birth to Gallegina or "Buck" and Stand. It is during this time that the United States and the State of Georgia legally agree to the removal of "indians" from the state at a later date.
By 1805 Ridge's attention returns to the council, and he, Hicks and Vann are extremely unhappy at what they see. Tribal elders, most notably Doublehead, are getting rich at the expense of the tribe. The Cherokee Triumvirate lead a group in a complex series of events generally referred to as "The Revolt of the Young Chiefs."
Doublehead betrays the Cherokee on many occasions. After the cession of Wofford's tract in 1804, Doublehead begins to rapidly sell the real assets of the tribe under the direction of Indian Agent Return J. Miegs. By 1806 a significant portion of remaining land is sold, with most of the proceeds going to Doublehead and those who aligned with him. Vann and Ridge break with the council. Although almost entirely alone at first, they slowly build support across the nation. Within 2 years a large vocal group support the two rebellious chiefs.
In a bold plan in August, 1807, possibly approved by the tribal council, Ridge, Hicks, and Vann plot the murder Doublehead. Deeply involved, neither the federal government or the Cherokee clan of Doublehead take any action against Ridge. He turns back a settler near Vann's Tavern, and later, in the presence of Meigs, usurps his power on the council. The council quickly begins to nationalize and Ridge is put in charge of the first Cherokee police, the Lighthorse Patrol. At Ridge's insistence the ancient blood vengeance code is abolished.
Just as the Triumvirate reaches it's acme, Hicks quits (or is forced to quit) his job assisting Miegs and Vann is killed. Now Ridge, who desperately seeks to lead his nation, sees his power in council dwindling. It is now that the man who has the vision addressed the council and Ridge rises to call him a liar. This is a dramatic moment in Cherokee History. Once again reinstated for this bold move, the council appoints Ridge to journey to Tecumseh's council with the Creeks and others. After the meeting, Ridge takes Tecumseh aside and explains that if Tecumseh comes to the Cherokee council, Ridge will personally kill him.
With the onset of the Creek War(1813-1814), Ridge raises an army of Cherokee volunteers. Elected a leader of the unit, Andrew Jackson appoints him Major, a title Ridge uses for the rest of his life. It is said that Ridge's canoe is the first to cross the Tallapoosa River as the Cherokee attack from the rear during the Battle of Horseshoe Bend(1814). He leads the Cherokee during the Seminole War(1818) as well and his daughter dies during child-birth.
After the end of the Seminole War Ridge returns home to an elected position as Speaker of the council in the lower house. His wealth expands to rival, but not surpass, that of his late friend James Vann. The Ridge house is completely remodeled and records indicate the vast holdings as including:
1141 peach trees
418 apple trees
280 acres under cultivation
30 black slaves
other slaves including Creek captives
Ridge was known as being kind to his slaves. For years Susanna Wickett, his mixed-blood wife would tell him, "Remember, they are people, too."
During the 1820's the Cherokee Nation is institutionalized, and John Ross wins election as tribal leader, a position that Ridge wanted for most of his adult life. He is happy his close friend and ally John Ross gets elected. After the election Ridge assumes a position that could best be described as "counselor" and for the next 7 years advises Principal Chief Ross on matters before council.
It is during this time that John, his son, decides to marry a white woman. The woman's parents move to prevent the marriage on religious grounds and Ridge confronts the Morovians with a direct question -- "Is there anything in your Bible to prevent such a marriage?" The Morovians assure him that there is not, but they are concerned that the powerful chief does not believe them. Shortly after the women's parents relent and John Ridge and she were married.
Now aging, Ridge sees his son John and Buck Oolwatie(Elias Boudinout) as the future of the tribe. Buck, as editor of the Cherokee Phoenix, eventually espouses removal to Oklahoma as a viable solution to the problem of white encroachment. Ridge is convinced over a period of several years, but John Ross and an overwhelming majority of the Cherokee are against removal.
In December, 1835, Ridge, his son John, Buck Oolwatie (Elias Boudinot), and Stand Watie sign the Treaty of New Echota, which results three years later in The Trail of Tears. Ross promptly gathers 16,000 signatures of Cherokees who oppose removal. Indian-hater Andrew Jackson forces the treaty through Congress by a single vote.
Ridge did not wait to move to Oklahoma. Between 1836 and 1838 he and hundreds of other Cherokee travel to their new home. Along the way he stops to meet his old friend Andrew Jackson at the Hermitage.
Three years later, in clear violation of constitutional law as interpreted by the Supreme Court, the Cherokee are forced to leave for Oklahoma because of Ridge's conviction in his beliefs.
After Major Ridge signs The Treaty of New Echota he says, "I have just signed my death warrant," and indeed he had. Ridge, John and Buck lay dead less than six months afterr the arrival of the Cherokee in the Oklahoma Territory. In an orchestrated plot Ridge is shot while travelling to Arkansas. A few minutes later a group of Cherokee drag his son John from his home and stab 43 times in front of his wife and children. Elias Boudinot is murdered shortly after leaving Samuel Worcester's house.
As brilliant a statesman and politician that Ridge had been, he is forever doomed to a role of betrayer of Cherokee Nation. No other Cherokee has a greater affect on the tribe.
Did Ridge really betray his nation?
Major Ridge's house is now the Chieftain's Museum on Georgia's Historic High Country's Chieftain's Trail.
In August, 1997, the editors of Welcome to North Georgia named Ridge as the most influencial person in the makeup of today's North Georgia. Read the article
In the summer of 1793, a mixed blood Cherokee, John Boggs married the daughter of Chief Turtle-at-Home in Chota. John Boggs was a Trader among the Cherokee. The Boggs of southeast Kentucky, Wise and Lee County, VA, and Appalachia are connected to the Cherokee, including Dr. Eli Boggs, deceased of Hazard, KY, a cousin of Jesse Elmer Eversole or Elmer Jesse Eversole, deceased, both of Perry County, KY, old Clay County, KY. See Vicco, VA and Vicco, KY as an example of connections in the area. The Howards are connected to the same families. Many have ties to Cherokee Chief Red Bird of Kentucky and the MAIN CHEROKEE NATION, including Chief Doublehead and Benge and others of Cherokee history in Kentucky and the South. TURTLE AT HOME is listed as a signer of the 1806 Cherokee - Dearborn Treaty signed in Washington, D.C. Chief Red Bird also is listed as a signatory, as is the leading Chief: DOUBLEHEAD. Doublehead lived at Goose Creek, KY with those connected to Red Bird and the Carolinas, like Goose Creek, South Carolina. Doublehead also lead war parties in Tennessee, Georgia and elsewhere. They are also related to Powhatan in some lines, as well as most Cherokee branches. Chief Benge was murdered in 1792. Also see Bowling Town, (Buckhorn)KY in Perry County for ties to Boone, the Long Hunters and Cherokee families, as well as Leatherwood in Perry County, with a salt springs and Cherokee Town of the colonial era. Buggs Island, Kerr Dam, near Clarksville, VA MAY also tie the Boggs to Powhatan Cherokee, Saponi and Catawba. jpl
Here are the words of Dragging Canoe:
In the beginning of all things, wisdom and knowledge were with the animals, for Unetlanvhi, the One Above, did not speak directly to man. He sent certain animals to tell men that he showed himself through the beast, and that from them, and from the stars and the sun and moon should man learn.. all things tell of Tirawa. All things in the world are two. In our mind we are two -- good and evil. With our eyes we see two things -- things that are fair and things that are ugly ... We have the right hand that strikes and makes for evil, and the left hand full of kindness, near the heart. One foot may lead us to an evil way, the other foot may lead us to a good. So are all things two, all two.
The Chickamauga Cherokee
A Brief History
In 1730 Sir Alexander Cuming escorted a group of Cherokee to England to meet King George II. They signed articles of friendship and commerce with representatives of the Crown. Although the seven redmen who made the trip were introduced to the king as "chiefs", only one could be considered a real leader -- the others being young braves who went for the adventure. The actual chiefs had responsibilities to their people and would not leave. Among these braves was Attakullakulla, or "Little Carpenter" who eventually became a powerful and influential chief.
In 1750 Atakullakulla led war parties against the French & their native allies, including Shawnee, in the Ohio Valley. As the boats were leaving the village, the warriors watched Atakullakulla's 12 year old son attempt to drag a fully-loaded war canoe, hewn from a log, from the shore into the water. The boy had been told that he couldn't go with the war party unless he could do this. His enthusiasm and efforts earned him the name "Dragging Canoe".
On March 17th 1775 over a thousand Cherokee gathered for the signing of the Sycamore Shoals Treaty. The Transylvania Company, a real estate venture headed by North Carolina Judge Richard Henderson and friend Daniel Boone, was attempting to purchase most of western and central Kentucky, and north central Tennessee from the Cherokees, transferring all holdings between the Ohio and Cumberland Rivers to the Transylvania Land Company. The Cherokee are offered $10,000 worth of trade goods and $2,000 for this very large parcel, and they accept it; a deal is made. Of course, the Cherokee were only selling their own claim to the land; other tribes who hunted here had not been approached. The Chiefs who came to Sycamore Shoals were well aware of this, but it was essentially the white man's problem. Still, not everyone was happy and in spite of the great feast which went on for days, people were grumbling. One outraged brave complained that his share was a mere shirt which could have easily been earned from a day's hunt in the land ceded. Among others, the Cherokee were represented by Chiefs Attakullakulla and Oconostota, both of whom had been across the great waters 45 years previous. It is believed that Chief Doublehead and his daughter Corn Blossom were also present at this occasion. The paper signed at Sycamore Shoals in what is now eastern Tennessee, was the biggest private land deal in the nation's history, although the treaty was soon to be revoked by the governments of Virginia and North Carolina. In reference to this deal, Colonel Washington wrote that there was "...something in that affair which I neither understand nor like..." Private companies had no right to treat with the natives. Henderson lost his investment. However, the treaty will be used by these same governments as a claim on Cherokee lands. Dragging Canoe, then a minor chief, was strongly opposed to the selling of the Cherokee ancestral hunting grounds, warning the whites that there was a 'cloud over that country', that they were purchasing a "dark and bloody ground". Daniel Boone for one, was well aware that there would be trouble if the Americans tried to settle there. Shawnee had already killed his oldest son James during a hunting expedition two years previous. More recently the British governor of the Northwest Territories, Lord Henry Hamilton, began to supply substantial amounts of arms and ammunition to natives and went so far as to offer bounties for the scalps of colonists in 1775. Things were getting ugly quick.
"Whole Indian Nations have melted away like snowballs in the sun before the white man's advance. They leave scarcely a name of our people except those wrongly recorded by their destroyers. Where are the Delewares? They have been reduced to a mere shadow of their former greatness. We had hoped that the white men would not be willing to travel beyond the mountains. Now that hope is gone. They have passed the mountains, and have settled upon Tsalagi (Cherokee) land. They wish to have that usurpation sanctioned by treaty. When that is gained, the same encroaching spirit will lead them upon other land of the Tsalagi (Cherokees). New cessions will be asked. Finally the whole country, which the Tsalagi (Cherokees) and their fathers have so long occupied, will be demanded, and the remnant of the AniYvwiya, The Real People, once so great and formidable, will be compelled to seek refuge in some distant wilderness. There they will be permitted to stay only a short while, until they again behold the advancing banners of the same greedy host. Not being able to point out any further retreat for the miserable Tsalagi (Cherokees), the extinction of the whole race will be proclaimed. Should we not therefore run all risks, and incur all consequences, rather than to submit to further loss of our country? Such treaties may be alright for men who are too old to hunt or fight. As for me, I have my young warriors about me. We will hold our land."
Dragging Canoe, Tsalagi (Cherokee) - Chief , Chickamauga Confederacy
In the summer of 1776, Dragging Canoe led attacks against white settlers, but didn't get much help, especially not from a Cherokee Warrior named Nancy Ward, Ghi-ga-u, or Beloved Woman. Having learned of a large scale plan to attack the Americans with the help of British troops, she informed traders William Falling and Isaac Thomas and provided them with the means of setting out on a hundred and twenty mile trip to warn the settlers on the Holston and Watauga. The attack was repulsed. Things were not going well for the resistance. Dragging Canoe was actually shot through both legs in one raid. The old chiefs desired peace but Dragging Canoe thought it would be far better to abandon the old towns, move south, and continue fighting. There was no way to beat the settlers with their rifles in open warfare, so during the winter of '76-77, Dragging Canoe and his followers built new settlements in the Chickamauga Creek area of north Georgia. The discontented from many tribes and even some renegade whites took refuge with him there where they became known as Chickamaugans. Rather than capitulate with the older chiefs, the Chickamaugans waged war against the settlers for the next 17 years. Dragging Canoe's band of disillusioned-warriors, under the leadership of lieutenants, Benge, John Watts, Glass, Turtle at Home, Richard Justice, Doublehead, Black Fox, the half-breed Ooskiah of Abraham, and Raven, held out against the invaders. Their guerrilla raids, from camps near present-day Chattanooga Tennessee and Mussel Shoals, Alabama, left a trail of scalps, murdered victims, smoldering cabins and ruined crops.
Doublehead, was the last Cherokee Chief to exercise control over the upper Cumberland Plateau. He was born near the present town of Somerset, Kentucky, and had two known children by his wife of French-Indian mixed-blood. These children would eventually be known as Princess Cornblossom and Tuckahoe. Chief Doublehead was named for his dual personality. Although he rose to prominence as an ambassador representing the Cherokee nation to President George Washington, the Chief also honored the ancient code. He killed and terrorized settlers, wreaking vengeance upon those unlucky enough to be within his reach. He did to whites what they had done to his people. According to some accounts, he was as viciously indiscriminate as Sevier, Hamilton, and other Indian Fighters. For almost twenty years, Chickamaugans such as Doublehead, and Shawnee like Blackfish, did everything they could to convince white people that Kentucky and Tennessee were neither for sale nor settlement.
In 1786, a couple of Chickasaws on their way to visit friends in the settlements south of the Duck River passed through a Chickamaugan town in northern Alabama which they realized was a secret camp from which raids on the Tennessee settlers were being staged. They continued north toward the Duck River in Tennessee and told their white friends about it. In response, a military venture known as the The Toka Expedition was initiated. Assisted by the Chickasaws who had offered the report, Colonel James Robertson and 130 volunteers followed Shoal Creek south to the Tennessee, crossed the river there at Colberts Ferry and surprised a group of Chickamauga at Coldwater (present day Tuscumbia). Robertson torched the town and discovered nine Frenchmen among Doublehead's gang. For the moment, this put an end to most of the Indian raids and depredations south of the Duck River, although this land was not to be given over in treaty by the Chickasaws for another twenty years (1816). Of course, many white settlers were already living there illegally. Tennessee would not become a state for another ten years (1796)
In the spring of 1788, the brutal murder of eleven members of the Kirk family brought Indian fighters like Sevier and Hubbard to retaliate. In response to queries, Four Cherokee chiefs had gathered under a flag of truce raised by the vigilantes, purportedly to talk about the attack and gather information. They were summarily locked in a guarded room and tomahawked in cold blood by the eldest son, John Kirk Jr., in vengeance for the recent murder of his family. None of the Indians present had anything to do with the attack on the Kirk clan. Among them were two well respected peace chiefs, Old Tassel and Abram. The Chiefs simply bowed their head and received the blows.
Through all of this, the Chickamauga fought on but were forced to retreat slowly northward, until by 1790, they had joined forces with the Shawnee in Ohio. After the initial Indian victories of Little Turtle's War (1790-94), most of the Ohio Chickamauga returned south and settled near the Tennessee
Children of Chief Doublehead and Creat Priber are:
- +Crevet Doublehead, b. 1760, d. date unknown.