4.WILLIAM4 HUDSON (HENRY3, HENRY2, RANDOLPH1)1 was born Abt. 1560 in London, England1, and died 1630 in London, England1.He married ALICE TURNER1 April 19, 1592 in Staffordsh. ENG1.She was born 15601, and died 16301. Notes for WILLIAM HUDSON: [hudsonv67t0951.ftw] brother of Henry III the explorer More About WILLIAM HUDSON and ALICE TURNER: Marriage: April 19, 1592, Staffordsh. ENG1 Children of WILLIAM HUDSON and ALICE TURNER are:
SR. RICHARD HUDSON, b. 1605, Tamworth, Staffordshire, England; d. 1659, Northampton Co. VA.
5.HENRY III4 HUDSON (HENRY3, HENRY2, RANDOLPH1) was born September 12, 1570 in England, and died 1611 in Abandoned at sea.He married KATHERINE ?.She died Abt. 1624. Notes for HENRY III HUDSON: This is a biography from a web site.I thought it was pretty good.The web site is: http://www.ianchadwick.com/hudson/ I hope he doesn't mind me using his stuff. The life and times of Henry Hudson, explorer and adventurer This is a collection of data about, and a chronology of the life and voyages of English explorer, mariner and adventurer, Henry Hudson, as well as some additional notes on his times, contemporaries and his crew. it was compiled from numerous sources by Ian Chadwick, 1997-2001. Not much is known for certain about Henry Hudson's life or any of his voyages before 1607. He must have learned his craft and skills by travelling with contemporary seafarers, probably British mariners (possibly even sailing with John Davis on one of his voyages to the Arctic) because by the time of his first recorded voyage, he was a captain. His contributions to the exploration of the world as it was then known have generally been understated by modern sources, and overshadowed by greater exploits of his contemporaries. No contemporary painting or portrait of Henry Hudson has ever been found and even the oldest we have were painted after his death by people who probably based their artwork solely on a description. Hudson was the architect of his own fateful tragedy that led to the mutiny in 1611. Obsessed by the vision of a northwest passage, he often ignored everything around him in his quest to find it. That included his crew. Almost every voyage indicated some form of crew uprising or mutiny. Hudson appeared weak and vacillated between appeasement and force when dealing with crew, seldom disciplining them when or as required, often showing favoritism to some members at the expense of the others (and of his own authority). When he did attempt to exercise his authority, it came out in petty, small ways and created a greater divide between himself and his crew. His attempt to show leniency to mutinous crew in Ungava Bay only led to further abuses and ultimately his demise. He appeared unable to manage his men in times of stress. Hudson proved a competent navigator, but his personal ambition and goals often over-rode his judgment. Although courageous at times, he was headstrong and given to ignore the directions of his sponsors. His contributions to the geographical knowledge of his day were great. Hudson today is mostly known for a few place names in the atlas which indicate where he travelled. But his voyage of 1607 cast him in the role of the father of the whaling industry in the 17th century. His reports led to the wholesale slaughter of these gentle mammals over the next four centuries. The same fate was in store for the walrus he reported on journeys north. A more enlightened present may look on whaling and hunting walrus as ignoble and savage, but in Hudson's day they were important industries. Biographers have found considerable fragmentary information in surviving records about his family and his background, although some is still supposition and conjecture. You may want to refer to the sources listed in the bibliography on the links page for other reading material. Note: Spelling in the 17th century was seldom consistent. Alternate spellings of names and places are given in parentheses. Personal data: Hudson's life: He was born in the 1570s, possibly September 12, 1570. Some sources put his birth date as early as 1550, but this is probably too soon. One source says he was 26 in 1588, others guess at a birthdate of 1575. Some biographers place his family in Hoddersdon, in Hertfordshire, about 17 miles northwest of London. He may have sailed with John Davis in 1587 on his voyage to discover a northwest passage. On that voyage, Davis named the raging waters now known as Hudson Strait the 'Furious Overfall.' This has been suggested because Davis planned his 1585 attempt to find a Northwest passage in the home of Thomas Hudson, in Limehouse (now in the docks area of London's east end). This may have been Henry's brother. As a young man, he probably served in the offices of the Muscovy Company in London because his family had shares in the company. The family coat of arms is an argent semee of fleurs-de-lis gules, a cross engrailed sable. His family owned a narrow, three-storey brick house near the Tower of London. Little else is known about his life before 1607. However, some authors have placed him on an English ship fighting the Spanish Armada in 1588, and on trading missions to the Mediterranean, North Sea and Africa, trading steel axes for gold, ivory and spices. He was old enough to be an experienced mariner in 1588 when the Armada attacked. Family data: His wife, Katherine: Katherine Hudson (her unmarried name is unknown) was left very poor when Henry and John failed to return from their last voyage. She tried to get the East India Co., which sponsored the trip, to send out a rescue mission. Three years after Henry Hudson's disappearance, she applied to directors of EIC. They recognized their obligation to the "man who lost his life in the service of the Commonwealth" and sent a ship to look for Hudson. It never found any trace of the abandoned crew. Katherine also sought compensation for her husband's death, for which she was called "that troublesome and impatient woman" in company records. But she was persistent and eventually succeeded. Under the company's approval and with their funding, she went to Ahmadabad, India to purchase indigo. She demanded special privileges there, at the company's expense. According to company manifests, she got five churles of indigo, quilts, 37 chuckeryes, 46 pieces of simianes. She started suit to get East India Co. to pay the freight back to England and after much effort got a settlement, which the company described as "the end of Mrs Hudson's tiresome suit." Katherine returned from that trip in 1622, a wealthy woman, and retired to her home in London. In her last two years, she was received at court at least twice. She was by all accounts a strong, willful woman. One source says she was married at age 30 in 1592, but that would mean her son Oliverprobably couldn't have fathered his child Alice by 1608 (possible: he could have been 16 at the time). Katherine tried unsuccesfully to have a monument erected to her husband in the last years before she died, in 1624. She was buried Sept 11.She left all her belongings to sons Richard and Oliver. His children: Hudson had three sons: Richard, John and Oliver. John Hudson was onboard as ship's boy with his father since 1607. He served in all four of Hudson's recorded voyages. He was among the crew abandoned in the bay in 1611. At the request of his mother, the East India Company entered Richard Hudson's name on the ship Samaritan, gave him five pounds, and sent him to Bantam, Java, Japan, then Bengal, India, to serve as a factor for the company. One source says he was 3 at the time of his niece's christening, in 1608. Richard was very successful in India and amassed a large fortune. As a trader for the company, Richard one of the first Europeans to be given a permit to live in Imperial Japan. On a trip back to England in the late 1630s, he became involved in a dispute with the company, the reasons for which were never made public but probably had to do with his finances. They threatened to send him to prison, but he defied the directors and returned to his home in Balasor, India. Several of his children migrated to the New World and his descendants are still in America. He died at his home in India, in 1644. Oliver Hudson had a daughter, Alice in 1608. Henry attended her christening. Oliver may have written the journal of his father's 1587 voyage, which was published in 1612. Father, grandfather and other family: Henry Hudson's grandfather was also called Henry Hudson, (according to Hakluyt, although some sources identify him as Hudson's father). His grandfather was named in Queen Mary's Charter, 6 Feb. 1555, as one of the founders of the Muscovy Company, which sponsored John Sebastian Cabot in his expedition to the New World. He was an alderman in the City of London. His father was a wealthy Londoner, a member of the Skinners and Tanners (one of 12 privileged companies from which Lord Mayor can be chosen), possibly also an alderman, and owned property in Stourton, Lincolnshire. Henry's father had eight sons - including Thomas, John, Edward, Christopher, (William? see below) and Henry . His father died in December (20?) 1555 (or 1585), of malignant fever. His widow Barbara married an alderman named Richard Champion, who was elected sheriff 1558-9, Lord Mayor 1566. She died in 1568 without issue. William Hudson, born 1528(?) has been reported as Henry's uncle. William had a son, also named WIlliam, who married Alice Turner. They had a son, Richard, born 1605 in Tamworth, Staffordshire. Richard sailed to Virginia in 1635 on the 'Safety.' Hudson's brothers: Christopher was named as factor of the Muscovy Company in Russia. Thomas was a sea captain in employ of Muscovy Company 1580-1 and made at least one trip to Persia for the company. He sold his inherited lands to his brother John. John consulted with John Davis about finding the Northwest Passage and assisted in deliberations which resulted in Davis' famous voyages. There were numerous Hudsons who worked for the Muscovy Company (founded 1555) , serving as captains, factors and agents. Some were Henry's relatives, but little is known about them or their ties David Hudson, a modern American descendant of Henry Hudson, put together a family tree, helped in part by records kept by the Church of Latter Day Saints, the Hudson Family Association (HFA) and The Hudson Family History by Van Alan Hudson.Click here for a table of five generations of Henry Hudson's family tree. There are more than 90,000 descendants of the Hudson family listed in the HFA database. Hudson's friends and sources: Jodocus Hondius (Josse de Hondt), Holland's leading cartographer and map publisher. He fled his home city of Ghent during the religious upheaval of the period, and lived in London for a while, where he was an portrait engraver and cartographer. He may have engraved Hudson's portrait at this time, but it is not currently known or found. Hudson visited Hondius again in Amsterdam and gave him details of his voyages of 1607 and 1608. Hondius also acted as advisor and interpreter during the negotiations with the Dutch when Hudson was hired by the Dutch east India Company (see Hudson's third voyage, 1609). He was also a friend with Capt. John Smith and received correspondence from him. Captain John Smith, founder of the English colony in Virginia. He informed Hudson that there was a passage to the Pacific Ocean (the 'Western Sea') north of Virginia (below 40 °), possibly through a river or inlet. Smith sent him charts. Hudson probably intended to visit Smith in Virginia, and came close in 1609, but turned north instead. He may have been afraid the English would fire on his Dutch ship before they found out who was its captain. Peter Plancius: This Dutch clergyman and scholar met Hudson while the latter was negotiating with the Dutch East India Company, 1608-1609. Plancius was a founder of that company. Plancius had started a school of navigation, which gave the Dutch the skills to rival their former overlords, the Spanish. Among his pupils was Willem Barents, Arctic explorer. Hudson told Plancius he did not believe a route to the east lay through the northeast passage, but rather through the northwest. Hessel Gerritsz: Another Dutch cartographer working for the United Dutch East India Company whom Hudson met in his negotiations for his third voyage. Rev. Richard Hakluyt (born cica 1552) knew Hudson and recommended him to the Muscovy Company as the commander of his first voyage, in 1607. Hakluyt's two books, Divers Voyages (1582) and Principal Navigations (1589, revised and expanded in 1599-1600) were important records of mostly English voyages and explorations to 1600, and were an influence on both Hudson and his employers. In 1584, Hakluyt also published a manuscript on behalf of Sir Walter Raleigh that helped secure support from the Queen for his colonial venture. The Rev. Samuel Purchas also noted he had met with Hudson after he returned in 1608 and found Hudson very melancholy at his failure. In 1625, Purchas also published an important book recording the voyages and adventures of English mariners, called Purchas his Pilgrims. Contemporary history before 1607: 1553: Hugh Willoughby sets out in May to the Kara Sea, to find a route to Cathay (China). He sighted a land he called 'Gooseland' (Novaya Zemlya). 1554: Willoughby and his crew of 70 perished after discovering the islands called Novaya Zemlya (Nova Zembla). 1555: The Muscovy Company is formed to trade with Russia. 1556-1557: Stephen Burrough tries the same northeastern passage as Willoughby but returns convinced there is no way to break through the ice barrier and reach China that way. He landed on 'Gooseland.' 1558: Queen Elizabeth I comes to the throne. 1569: Gerhardus Mercator, influential map maker, published his map. Based on mathematical principles, it is a flat map using the projection that still carries his name today. 1576: Sir Humphrey Gilbert, a favorite of the Queen, publishes Discourse to prove a passage by the northwest to Cathay and the East Indies. His ideas get the Queen's support. She gets the court to back Martin Frobisher's first voyage. Frobisher reaches Baffin Island, and returns with ore he thinks has gold in it. 1577, 1578: Frobisher makes two trips to gather his "gold" but it turns out to be worthless pitchblende. 1580: William Bourne publishes his book, A Regiment for the Sea, urging exploration of polar routes to the east. Sir Francis Drake circumnavigates the Globe. 1582: Richard Hakluyt, 30, publishes his first book, Diverse Voyages Touching the Discovery of America. 1585-88: John Davis (Davys) makes three voyages to the northwest. He charted the strait between Greenland and Canada and explored the eastern shore of Baffin Island. In 1587 he explored Davis Strait to Sanderson's Hope and reached the most northerly point reported by any European to that date: 72°45'N. He passes the entrance to a great, swirling, roaring strait, which he dubbed the "Furious Overfall," now called Hudson Strait. Davis reported a "great sea, free, large, very salty, blue and of unsearchable depth" when his ship was anchored off Greenland. He estimated it to be 40 leagues (120 miles) wide and believes the "passage is most probable, the execution easy." Henry Hudson may have served as mate with Davis on at least one (1587) of his voyages. 1588: Spanish king Philip II sends the Armada against England, but it is defeated. As an experienced mariner, Hudson would have probably served aboard an English ship in this battle, unless he was elsewhere. 1592: Sir John Burrough captures an East Indian carrack laden with 900 tons of spices, cloth and treasures from the orient. This excites more English adventurers to seek ways to get to these riches. This year, too, the plague struck London, killing an estimated 10 per cent of the population. 1595: Four Dutch ships under the command of Cornelius de Houtman reach Java by way of the Cape of Good Hope. The Dutch begin exploration of the East Indies. 1596: Dutch explorers Willem Barents (Barentsz, one of Peter Plancius' proteges) and Jacob Heemskerck discover the Spitzbergen Islands, they touched northwest tip of Spitzbergen, 79°49' N . Barents sailed east to Novaya Zemlya where his ship got locked in the ice. The crew was forced to winter over for eight months in a cabin they built ashore (The Saved House). They become the first European expedition to survive an Arctic winter. In 1871, Norwegian harpooner Elling Carlsen, in pursuit of a pack of walrus, discovered the ruin of The Saved House where Barents' crew stayed. Archeological excavation works began in 1993 and proceeded in 1995. 1597: In June, Barents dies on Novaya Zemlya after surviving the winter there. Heemskerck manages to sail the ship back to port. 1598: Don Juan de Onate claims all of New Mexico for Spain. 1598-1600: Richard Hakluyt published his 12-volume series on the explorations of English seafarers, The Principal Navigations. It includes accounts of the voyages of Frobisher, Davis and Willoughby. Hudson most likely read it and was influenced by the stories. 1600: English East India Company formed. 1602: Captain George Weymouth (Waymouth) leaves England in Discovery for the New World, to look for a northwestern route to the Orient. He sailed 100 leagues into the Furious Overfall before ice pushed him back. His journal of the voyage was not published until 1625. 1602: Another explorer, Bartholomew Gosnold, left England, on March 26, with a crew of 32, to explore the New World. He names Cape Cod. His journals and logs were also available to Hudson. 1603: James VI of Scotland succeeds Elizabeth, becoming James I of England. 1604: John Davis is killed by pirates off the coast of Sumatra. 1605: John Cunningham, James Hall and John Knight, in three ships, explore the west coast of Greenland for Christian IV, of Denmark. A French trading post was established at Port Royal (Annapolis), Nova Scotia by Samuel de Champlain and the sieur de Poutrincourt. Weymouth explores the New England coast to find a place where English Catholics (unwanted in Protestant England) could found a settlement. Hudson may have used Weymouth's logs of this voyage and charts for his own 1609 voyage.. 1606: John Knight, in the Hopewell, searches for the Northwest Passage along the coast of Labrador. James Hall, with five ships, is sent by Christian IV of Denmark to Greenland to Conduct mineralogical explorations. The first charter is granted to the Virginia Company, named after the 'Virgin Queen' Elizabeth I. Pero Fernandes de Queiros discovers the New Hebrides Islands. Willem Janzoon discovers Australia. Luis Van Torres explores the coastline of New Guinea. Children of HENRY HUDSON and KATHERINE ? are: