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Unknown Female (Loos) (b. Abt. 1798, d. Abt. 1859)Unknown Female (Loos)21 was born Abt. 1798 in Germany21, and died Abt. 1859 in Germany21.She married (Henry (Heinrich))?? (Lohse) (Looz) Loos, son of Do not know.
Notes for Unknown Female (Loos):
BAVARIA - EARLY ORIGINS
Bavaria, which was a part of the Roman Empire until the 5th century, was named after the ancient tribe of the "Bajuvaren", who settled in the region after the period of Roman occupation. In the 6th century, the German territories were inhabited by Saxons in north central Germany, East Franks along the lower Rhine, Thuringians between them, Bavarians along the middle Danube, and Swabians between the upper Rhine and Upper Danube and along the Northern Alps. In the 9th century, the Frankish Emperor Charlemagne incorporated Bavaria into his Empire despite the heroic attempts at resistance made by the Bavarian Duke Tassilo.
German RootsAnd families
During the time of Roman expansion in Europe, the Romans encountered many Germanic tribes on the other side of the Rhine and Danube rivers. The German people were a constant threat to the Empire since the first appearance of the Cimbri and Teutones at the end of the second century BC. Julius Caesar encountered them in his campaign in Gaul, in mid 1st century BC. In his memoir, called Gallic Wars, Caesar was able to distinguish the German from the Celts.
The origin of the German people was obscure, but it is believed that they were originally come from Scandinavia, before migrating to northern Germany and the Baltic. More Germanic tribes began migrating south, placing continuous stress on Roman defence frontiers. A Roman historian named Tacitus, (fl. AD 100), who wrote Germania, provided some details of the German society culture and religion. Other writers including Strabo, Jordanes, and Procopius. The continuous invasions and migrations on the Roman frontiers had caused instability and finally the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west.
Most of the Germanic religions and myths vanished because of the early conversion of the Germans to Christianity.
Duchy of Saxony
The Duchy of Saxony was a medevial Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany. It covered the area of the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Northrhine-Westfalia, Schleswig-Holstein, Saxony-Anhalt and parts of Saxony. Duke Henry the Lion occupied the area of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The Anglo-Saxons came from the later area of the Duchy of Saxony to England.
* About 200 - 400: The Saxons, until then living north of the Elbe river in Holstein, occupy the area south (today Lower Saxony), Westfalia and Eastfalia.
* 5th century: The Saxons come to England, together with the Angles.
* Early 6th century: The Saxons come to the Rhine.
* 531 Saxons and Franks destroy the Kingdom of Thuringia. Saxons inhabit the area down to the Unstrut river.
* 7th century: Election of the first dukes, but only in wartime.
* 718: The Franconian Charles Martel makes war against Saxony, because of its help for the Neustrians.
* 743: The Franconian Carloman starts a new war against Saxony, because the Saxons gave aid to Duke Odilo of Bavaria.
* 772-804: Emperor Charlemagne starts a 32 year war against the Duchy of Saxony.
o 772: Charlemagne occupies the Eresburg castle near Paderborn and destroys the Irminsul, a Saxon place of worship.
o 773 Charlemagne goes to Italy. The Saxons take the chance and reoccupy the Eresburg.
o 774/775: The army of Charlemagne marches against Saxony again. The Franks reoccupy the Eresburg castle, and the Sigiburg castle as well. At Höxter the Franks cross the Weser river and make war against the Eastfalian part of the Duchy.
o 776: Charles again in Italy. The Saxons reoccupy the castles of Eresburg and Sigiburg again.
o 777: Charlemagne erects the Karlsburg near Paderborn. He calls for the Heerschau. Some Saxons come and convert to the christian religion.
o 779 The Saxon Duke Widukind of the House of the Bruons starts a guerilla war against the Franks. Charlemagne's army marches north to the Elbe river.
o 782 Charlemagne makes his Blutgericht in Verden at the Aller river. He orders to kill more than 4,500 Saxons. Charlemagne's becomes known as "Charles the butcher" in Saxony.
o 783 Battles near Detmold and at the Hasel river. The Saxons lose both battles. Duke Widukind retreats to the castle Widukindsburg near Osnabrück.
o 784: Battle in the Dreingau
o 785: The Franks catch Widukind. He is christened.
o 792-795: Saxons stand up against the Franks.
o 796-799: Charlemagne orders a new march against the Saxons.
o 804 The last resistance of the Saxons is suppressed by the Franks.
* 804 The Duchy of Saxony, consisting in the parts of Engern, Westfalia, Eastfalia and Northalbingia (today Schleswig-Holstein) becomes part of the Franconian Empire.
* 852 Liudolf, Duke in Saxony, descendant of Widukind and first of the Ottonian dynasty, founds the monastery of Gandersheim.
* 880 Brun, son of Liudolfs, is killed by Vikings. Otto, the younger brother of Brun, becomes Duke of Saxony.
* 912 Henry, son of Otto, becomes new Duke.
* 919 Henry of Saxony (Henry I the Fowler) is elected as King of Germany.
* 936 His son, Otto I the Great crowned in Aachen as King of Germany.
* 938 Hermann Billung becomes Markgraf.
* 953 Otto I makes Hermann Billung the Vice Duke of Saxony.
* 973 Otto I dies in Memleben. Otto II becomes Emperor. Hermann Billung dies in Quedlinburg. Bernhard I. Billung becomes duke of Saxony.
* 983 Danish uproar in Hedeby. Slavonian uproar in Northalbingia. Otto III Emperor.
* 1002 The death of Otto III marks the end of the Saxon emperors.
* 1011 Duke Bernhard I. Billung dies, his son Bernhard II becomes duke.
* 1042 Ordulf Billung, son of Bernhard II, marries Wulfhild, the half sister of King Magnus of Denmark and Norway. Danes and Saxons fight against the Wendians.
* 1059 Ordulf Billung becomes Duke after the death of his father.
* 1072 Magnus Billung becomes Duke.
* 1106 Duke Magnus dies without son. This ends the Billung dynasty. The Billungian area becomes part of the Welf and Ascanian countries. Lothar I of Supplinburg becomes Duke of Saxony.
* 1112 Otto of Ballenstedt made Duke by King Henry V.
* 1115 Victory of Lothar I of Supplinburg in the battle of Welfesholz over King Henry V.
* 1125 Lothar I of Supplinburg elected as German King and Emperor.
* 1137 Death of Lothar. The Welf Henry X the Proud, Duke of Bavaria since 1126, becomes Duke of Saxony.
* 1138 Henry X tries to become king, but without success. The Ascanian Albert the Bear becomes new Duke of Saxony.
* 1139 Death of Henry X.
* 1141 Albert the Bear resigns.
* 1142 Emperor Conrad III grants the Duke title to the Welf Henry the Lion. Henry the Lion occupies north east germany. His realm covers more than two third of Germany from the Alps to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, making him the mightiest man in central Europe.
* 1180 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, removes Henry the Lion from the Duchy. With this final removal of the Welfs in 1180, the Duchies of Brunswick and Lüneburg, which fell to their descendants, passed out of the control of the Duchy of Saxony. The Ascanians, who now took control, were based further east, near the Elbe. The Welfs became later the Kings of Hanover, Great Britain and Ireland (House of Hanover).
Rulers of Saxony
List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918
The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia.
Table of contents
1 Dukes of Saxony
2 Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg
3 Electors of Saxony
4 Kings of Saxony
5 Heads of the House of Wettin since 1918
Dukes of Saxony
* Widukind 743-807, first duke known by name and counterpart of Charlemagne
Ottonian or Liudolfing dynasty
* Liudolf (about 850)
* Brun (after 852 -880)
* Otto I the Illustrious 880-912
* Henry I the Fowler 912-936 (German King 919-936)
* Otto the Great 936-961 (German King 936-973, Emperor 962-973)
* Hermann 961-973
* Bernard I 973-1011
* Bernard II 1011-1059
* Ordulf 1059-1072
* Magnus 1072-1106
* Lothar 1106-1127 (German King 1125-1137, Emperor 1133-1137)
* Henry II the Proud 1127-1138 (also Duke of Bavaria)
* Albert the Bear 1138-1142
* Henry the Lion 1142-1180 (also Duke of Bavaria)
With the final removal of the Welfs in 1180, the Duchies of Brunswick and Lüneburg, which fell to their descendants, passed out of the control of the Duchy of Saxony. The Ascanians, who now took control, were based further east, near the Elbe.
* Bernard III 1180-1212
* Albert II 1212-1260
Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg
On Albert II's death, Saxony was split between his sons, who became Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg and Saxe-Lauenburg. The Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg were as follows:
* Albert III 1260-1298
* Rudolf I 1298-1356
Electors of Saxony
In 1356 was issued the Golden Bull, which raised the Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of Elector. Henceforth he was known by the title of Elector of Saxony.
* Rudolf II 1356-1370
* Wenzel 1370-1388
* Rudolf III 1388-1419
* Albert III 1419-1422
The last Ascanian Elector of Saxony died in 1422. He was succeeded by the Margrave Frederick of Meissen and Thuringia, of the Wettin Dynasty.
* Frederick I the Warlike 1422-1428
* Frederick II the Gentle 1428-1464
(on Frederick II's death, the Wettin territories were divided between his sons. The elder, Ernest, inherited Northern Meissen, Southern Thuringia, and Wittenberg, along with the Electoral title. Albert, the younger, received Northern Thuringia and Southern Meissen)
Ernestine Electors of Saxony
* Ernest 1464-1486
* Frederick I the Wise 1486-1525
* John the Steadfast 1525-1532
* John Frederick 1532-1547
Albertine Dukes of Saxony
* Albert the Bold 1486-1500
* George 1500-1539
* Henry IV 1539-1541
* Maurice 1541-1547
In 1547, following Emperor Charles V's victory at the Battle of Mühlberg, Wittenberg and the Electoral dignity were transferred to the Albertine line. The Ernestine line continued to rule in southern Thuringian, but eventually split up into many different tiny duchies, of which Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Altenburg lasted until 1918. These will not be listed here.
Albertine Electors of Saxony
* Maurice 1547-1553
* Augustus 1553-1586
* Christian I 1586-1591
* Christian II 1591-1611
* John George I 1611-1656
* John George II 1656-1680
* John George III 1680-1691
* John George IV 1691-1694
* Frederick Augustus I 1694-1733 (also King of Poland, 1697-1704, 1709-1733)
* Frederick Augustus II 1733-1763 (also King of Poland)
* Frederick Christian 1763
* Frederick Augustus III 1763-1806
Kings of Saxony
In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire came to an end. Saxony became a Kingdom, and Frederick Augustus III became King Frederick Augustus I
House of Wettin
* Frederick Augustus I 1806-1827 (also Grand Duke of Warsaw 1807-1813)
* Anthony Clement 1827-1836
* Frederick Augustus II 1836-1854
* John 1854-1873
* Albert 1873-1902
* George 1902-1904
* Frederick Augustus III 1904-1918
Heads of the House of Wettin since 1918
* King Frederick Augustus III 1918-1932
* Frederick Christian, Margrave of Meissen 1932-1968
* Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen 1968-present
Statistics Capital: Hanover Area:
With an area of 47,600 km² and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the country's sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). In rural areas Low Saxon is still spoken, but declining so.
Lower Saxony borders on (from north and clockwise) the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia, and the kingdom of the Netherlands. The state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony. The state's principal cities include Hanover, Braunschweig (Brunswick), Osnabrück, Oldenburg and Göttingen.
The northwestern portion of Lower Saxony is a part of Frisia; it is called Ostfriesland (Eastern Frisia) and lies on the coast of the North Sea. It includes seven islands, known as the East Frisian Islands. In the southwest of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a sparsely populated area, once full of inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony is absolutely flat, but there are two mountain chains in the south: the Weserbergland ("Weser Hilly Region") and the Harz. The middle of the state houses the largest cities and the economic centres: Hanover, Hildesheim, Wolfsburg, Salzgitter and Braunschweig. The region in the northeast is called Lüneburger Heide (Lüneburg Heath), the largest heath of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to the salt trade. To the north the Elbe river separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein. The lands on the southern banks are called Altes Land (literally "Old Land"), and they are characterised by thousands of fruit-trees.
Lower Saxony is divided into 38 districts (Landkreise or simply Kreise):
13. Hamelin-Pyrmont (Hameln-Pyrmont)
14. Hanover (Hannover)
Furthermore there are eight independent towns, which don't belong to any district:
1. Braunschweig (Brunswick)
The districts and idependent towns are grouped into four administrative regions (Regierungsbezirke):
* Braunschweig (Brunswick)
* Hanover (Hannover)
The area is named for the Saxons, who moved there from what is today the neighbouring state of Schleswig-Holstein towards the middle of the 1st millennium AD. Originally the region was simply called Saxony, but as the center of gravity of the Duchy of Saxony gradually moved up the Elbe, towards the present day states of Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony, the region was given the name Lower Saxony, which it bore as an Imperial Circle Estate from the late 15th Century.
The state was founded in 1946 by the British military administration, who merged the former states of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Oldenburg, and Schaumburg-Lippe with the former Prussian province of Hanover.
Franconia - History
After the demise of the German Carolingian house with the death of Louis the Child, Duke Conrad of Franconia was elected (911) German king as Conrad I, but was unable to keep the royal crown in his family. As a result of the rebellion of Duke Eberhard, King Otto I seized the duchy in 939 and partitioned it; vast territories passed to the loyal clergy, notably to the bishops of WUrzburg and Bamberg and to the abbot of Fulda.
Two nominal duchies : that of Western or Rhenish Franconia and that of Eastern Franconia : emerged. Rhenish Franconia, which gave the empire the Franconian or Salian dynasty (1024-1125; Conrad II, Henry III, Henry IV, and Henry V), broke up into the free cities of Frankfurt and Worms, the ecclesiastical states of Mainz and Speyer, the Rhenish Palatinate, the landgraviate of Hesse, and other territories. Eastern Franconia, which Emperor Henry V had awarded to his nephew Conrad of Hohenstaufen in 1115, came increasingly under the control of the bishops of WUrzburg, who were given legal title by Emperor Frederick I in 1168.
The title of duke of Franconia fell into disuse until it was again assumed (15th cent.) by the bishops of WUrzburg, who continued to use it until their bishopric was secularized at the beginning of the 19th cent. The margraviates of Ansbach and Bayreuth, under the Franconian branch of the house of Hohenzollern, were the main secular territories in Eastern Franconia. The division (16th cent.) of the Holy Roman Empire into circles resulted in the creation of the Franconian circle, which included the bishoprics of WUrzburg and Bayreuth, the free imperial city of Nuremburg, and the margraviates of Ansbach and Bayreuth. Most of Eastern Franconia passed to Bavaria between 1803 and 1815, and in 1837 King Louis I of Bavaria revived the name Franconia by creating the administrative districts of Lower, Middle, and Upper Franconia.
HISTORY OF LORRAINE
Celts, Romans, Huns, Alemanni and Franks Mediomatrici and Leuci tribes populated Lorraine before Romans occupied the region in the first Century B.C. Forseveral centuries Lorraine was part of the Belgian province of the Roman Empire. In the 5th Century A.D. Huns ransacked Metz, Germanic tribes of Alemanni invaded the region and took possession of large areas. From this time a boundary was established in Lorraine between a northern area with a germanic language and a southern area that will become a French-speaking region. This boundary still exists nowadays but tends to disappear. About 500, the Merovingian king Clovis subdued the region. When he died in 511, Theodoric (or Thierry), one of his four sons, became the King of Austrasia. His kingdom spread from the left bank of the river Rhine to the North Sea and encompassed Lorraine. Metz became its main city. From Austrasia to Lotharingia At the time of Charlemagne (742-814), Lorraine belonged to what was much like a rebuilt Roman Empire. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun established the share of Charlemagne's Empire between his three grandsons. Charles the Bald was given the western part (France), Louis was given the eastern part (Germany) and Lothar got the Midlands which spread from the North Sea to Rome. When Lothar died in 855, a new share of his possessions occurred and his son Lothar II was given a land whose boundaries were much like those of the former Kingdom of Austrasia and which was then called Lotharingia in his honour Lotharii regnum > Lothringen). In 870, there was a new share of Lotharingia betweenCharles the Bald who got the western part and Louis the German who got the eastern part. Later Charles the Fat, the youngest son of Louis the German, restored the territorial unity of Charlemagne's empire. From Lotharingia to the Duchy of Lorraine
In 959, Lotharingia was split into the two Duchies of Lower Lotharingia (northern part) and of Upper Lotharingia or Mosellane (southern part). The Duchy of Upper Lotharingia was made of a territory which was almost the same as thepresent Lorraine plus the region of Trier. The cities of the Three Dioceses - Metz, Toul and Verdun - were excluded from this share. The County of Bar was founded about the 10th Century to the southwest of Lotharingia, and it went to the Duke of Upper Lotharingia. In 1048 the German emperor, Henry III the Black, left the Duchy of Lorraine to Gerard of Alsace whose descendants governed the country for about four centuries. To the west of the Duchy, the County of Bar became a Dukedom in 1354. Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, invaded Lorraine in 1475. With the help of the king of France, René II, Count of Vaudémont, opposed Charles the Bold who died near Nancy in 1477. When René I died in 1480, the Duchy of Lorraine and the Duchy of Bar were merged. Metz and some lords of the German Lorraine were in favour of the Reformation, but Lutheranism and Calvinism had only a limited audience in the Duchy. Antoine, a son of René II, encouraged the Counter Reformation. In 1525, he defeated revolted peasants in Saverne. In 1552, France occupied the cities of Metz, Toul and Verdun, putting an end to the independence of the Three Dioceses. During the Thirty Years War, which began in 1618, the population of Lorraine was decimated by war and plague. At the end of this war, the Three Dioceses - Metz, Toul and Verdun - were eventually integrated into the Kingdom of France. In 1663 and 1670, the Duchy was invaded by French troops. According to the Treaty of Ryswick, drawn up in 1697, the King of France Louis XIV returned both the Duchy of Lorraine and the Duchy of Bar, but without Longwy and Dillingen, to the Duke Leopold, a son of Charles V born in Innsbruck, who came back from exile. For more than fiftyyears, war and foreign occupation had ravaged the region. The Duchy had lost almost half of its population, eighty villages were completely destroyed. Many emigrants from Switzerland, Burgundy, Savoy, Franche-Comté and Germany settled in Lorraine. Lorraine becomes a French province In the beginning of the 18th C., after some new French attempts to conquest Lorraine, the Duke Leopold achieved the international recognition of the neutrality of the Duchy. His son Francis Stephen, who was married to Maria Theresa of Austria in 1736 and became Holy Roman Emperor in 1745, had to exchange the Duchy of Lorraine for the Duchy ofTuscany. In 1736 the Duchies of Lorraine and of Bar went to Stanislas Leszczynski as he abdicated the throne of Poland. Lorraine had been for a long time a coveted region and it was now surrounded by territories of the kingdom of France. In 1766, at the death of the Duke Stanislas Leszczynski, who was the father-in-law of the King of France Louis XV, Lorraine became eventually part of France. Three territories which belonged to German families became foreign enclaves : the abbey of Senones which belonged to the Princes of Salm, the County of Dabo which belonged to the Leiningen family, and Drulingen which belonged to the Counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken. From the French Revolution to the Franco-Prussian War In 1790, Lorraine was divided into 4 departements: Meurthe, Meuse, Moselle and Vosges. The annexation of the foreign enclaves took place in 1793. Lorraine gave many soldiers to the Napoleonic armies. In 1815, Lorraine lost Saarlouis and Saarbrücken to the benefit of Prussia. During the second half of the 19th Century, metallurgical industry took root and developed. In July 1850, the first train ran from Metz to Nancy. Due to poor grain harvest, the price of bread was on the rise and starvation that generated revolts occurred in 1816-1817. In May 1832, bakeries were ransacked in ancy by inhabitants who protested against the cost and the poor quality of bread. Cholera came from Asia and reached Lorraine in 1832. Many people died, mainly in villages, and most particularly paupers.Alsace-Lorraine In 1871, as a concession after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1), France gave up the Moselle portion of Lorraine, along with Alsace, to the new unified Germany and the history of Lorr
Marriage Notes for Unknown Female (Loos) and (Henry (Heinrich))?? (Lohse) (Looz) Loos:
Most Loos Families and thier Wifes are from similar areas in Germany
* Baden-Württemberg (Baden-Wurttemberg)
(includes the former grand duchy of Baden, the principality of Hohenzollern, and the kingdom of Württemberg)
* Bayern (Bavaria)
(includes the former kingdom of Bavaria [excluding the Rheinpfalz] and the duchy of Sachsen-Coburg)
(includes the western portion of the former Prussian province of Brandenburg)
* Hessen (Hesse)
(includes the former free city of Frankfurt am Main, the grand duchy of Hessen-Darmstadt [less the province of Rheinhessen], part of the landgraviate of Hessen-Homburg, the electorate of Hessen-Kassel, the duchy of Nassau, the district of Wetzlar [part of the former Prussian Rheinprovinz], and the principality of Waldeck)
* Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
(includes the former grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz [less the principality of Ratzeburg], and the western portion of the Prussian province of Pommern [Hither Pomerania])
* Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony)
(includes the former duchy of Braunschweig, the kingdom/Prussian province of Hannover, the duchy of Oldenburg in Oldenburg [grand duchy of Oldenburg], and the principality of Schaumburg-Lippe)
* Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia)
(includes the former Prussian province of Westfalen, the northern portion of the Prussian Rheinprovinz, and the principality of Lippe [Detmold])
* Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate)
(includes part of the principality of Birkenfeld [grand duchy of Oldenburg], the province of Rheinhessen [grand duchy of Hessen-Darmstadt], part of the landgraviate of Hessen-Homburg, most of the Bavarian Rheinpfalz, and most of the southern portion of the Prussian Rheinprovinz)
(includes parts of the Bavarian Rheinpfalz, of the southern portion of the Prussian Rheinprovinz, and of the principality of Birkenfeld [grand duchy of Oldenburg])
* Sachsen (Saxony)
(includes the former kingdom of Sachsen, and the following territory, part of the former Prussian province of Silesia: Kreis Hoyerswerda and the parts of the Kreise of Rothenburg/Oberlausitz and Görlitz west of the Oder-Neisse line)
* Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt)
(includes the former duchy of Anhalt and the Prussian province of Sachsen [less the Regierungsbezirk Erfurt])
(includes the former Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein with Lauenburg [excluding Northern Schleswig], the free city of Lübeck, and the principality of Ratzeburg [grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz])
* Thüringen (Thuringia)
(includes the former duchies and principalites of Thüringen, plus the Regierungsbezirk Erfurt of the former Prussian province of Sachsen)
Children of Unknown Female (Loos) and (Henry (Heinrich))?? (Lohse) (Looz) Loos are:
- +Henry W (Heinrich Wilhelm) Loos, b. August 31, 1817, (KUTZENHAUSEN), Bas-Rhin France /Germany)Imigration 1869 Abt.21, d. December 02, 1886, Neustadt Village Normanby Township Grey County21.
- +Casper Loos, b. Abt. 1813, Germany21,d., Germany21.
- +Jacob Loos, b. Abt. 181821.